Approval page



Background of the study
Statement of problem
Objective of study
Research questions
Research hypotheses
Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Limitation of the study
Definition of terms


Evolution of accounting
Purpose of accounting information
Classification and storing data in an accounting Environment
Controls in the manual system environment

Controls in the computerized accounting system
The nature of integrated accounting software system
Basic requirement of software accounting data
Advantages of computerized accounting system
Disadvantages of computerized accounting system
Comparison between manual Accounting system and Software Accounting system
Effect of software accounting system on organization performance

Company’s Profile



Research design
Area of the study
Population of the study
Sampling size and procedure
Instrument for data collection
Validation ofInstrument
Reliability of Instrument
Method of data presentation and analysis

Sample distribution


Presentation and Interpretation of Data
Decision rule


Summary of findings

Implication of findings






This research study is a comparative analysis of computerized and manual accounting system with reference to Forte Oil Plc Enugu Branch. The essence of this study is to ascertain which one is more efficient and effective than the other. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources which include the use of questionnaires, personal observation, text books, journals and internet. It was discovered that software accounting system is expensive to run, it handles larger volume of data than manual accounting system, but it encourages fraud and funds can be lost in organization with the use of software accounting system. In other to attain a larger volume of data and work accuracy in a shorter period, it is better for organization to use computerized accounting system to increase their efficiency. Those studying accounting as a profession should be introduced to both the theoretical and practical aspect of the accounting and to reduce funds lost through fraud and forgeries, managers and accountants should provide software developers with progressive information relating to their activities.


















Accounting system according to an Italian monk, Luca Pacioli (1491), is the combination of personnel records and procedures that a business uses to meet its need for financial data. Financial accounting also encompasses the summary of information and presentation of periodic reports such as profit and loss statement and balance sheet. The historical firms of accounting were of different degree of sophistication according to the need and techniques of the time. This is why modern accounting is based on the double entry system and the recognition of the dual nature of each transaction and this gives a co-ordinate support for the control of all the transaction of a business.

Accounting system according to business dictionary is an organized set of manual and computerized accounting methods, procedures and controls established to gather, record, classify, analyze, summarize, interpret and present accurate and timely financial data for management decisions.

In spite of this, there are policies for reporting an organizational performance and current conditions. These policies increase the usefulness of report including their reliability and comparability. The policy that makes up acceptable accounting practices are determined by many individuals and groups and those policies are referred to as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).Since accounting is a service activity, these rules reflect our society’s needs and not only on those of accountants. The Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) is another body or group that is seen as an independent group of seven full-time members with a large staff. This body has issued six statements of accounting concepts which help in guiding accounting standard setting. Many companies and organizations involve themselves in setting accounting rules/policies. They include investors, government agencies, politicians, unions, lenders and other business and non-business organizations.


Furthermore, there are two major types of methods used in recording accounting information, such methods are;

  • Manual Accounting Systemand
  • Software Accounting SystemorComputerized AccountingSystem.

Manual Accounting Systemextends and includes the method of processing, recording, journalizing transactions, posting to the ledgers and preparing the financial statements which provide decision makers with useful information in making decisions. These decisions relate to the allocation and use of scarce economic resources such as money, land, labour and capital. These manual accounting systems are wholly used for preparing income tax returns, reports to managers, bills to customers and other forms of providing accounting information.


In addition, with manual accounting system, accountants and managers usually inspect the documents, journal ledgers and reports in the performance of testing and verification. Transaction can be traced from source documents to journals, general ledgers, printed report etc. Subsidiary ledgers can be posted and the total can be compared with control accounts. It is visually observed by the auditors or accountants to determine whether proper books of accounts or is being followed.


InComputerized Accounting System, technology is the main part of our modern society and business practices. It also plays a major important role in accounting as it helps in reducing the time, effort and cost of record keeping while improving clerical accuracy. Technology has distinct the way we store, process and summarize large masses of data which makes accounting free to increase its field.

The origin of software could be traced back to early 1960’s. Historically, emphasis in computer industry was on programming and was seen as the biggest single problem in the implementation of a computer system. Computer has the ability to add and subtract, but frequently not to multiply or divide, the computer run with relatively simple software routines.


However, this study tends to analyze the comparison between manual accounting and software accounting which are the two types of accounting system used by various organizations and companies.



In recent times, most companies and organizations have been using the manual form of operations in their accounting systems. Primarily, these manual accounting systems used to meet the organizational information requirement but this has been on consistent failure in recent times as a result of growth and diversification of business and technological advancement complexities in information technology to meet the current business demands.

This companies and organization had usually been faced with numbers of problem in the use of this manual accounting system which involves;

  1. Lack of ability to handle sufficient or large volume of data: this implies the ability to handle large volume of data or files which manual accounting system faces.
  2. Insufficient data storage and retrieval system often resulting to loss of vital records or information: this implies that there is lack of sufficient storage facilities in either the two accounting system which normally lead to file lost.
  3. Rampant report of forgeries which might lead to fraud: to ascertain the proper accounting system that will be effective in the effort of forgeries in other to prevent fraud.



The main objective of this study is a comparative analysis of software accounting system and manual accounting system.The study aims at ascertaining the following;

  1. To ensure that software accounting system can handle large volume of data or information more than the manual accounting system.
  2. To assure that sufficient storage devices or means is provided by either manual or computerized system of accounting which might lead to fraud as a result of file lost or inadequate retrieval system.
  3. To ascertain that the manual or computerized accounting system can offer quick report of forgeries in other to fight and prevent corruption and fraud



The course of this research has picked up some interesting enquires and discussions which centered more on a comparative analysis of software accounting and manual accounting system in Forte Oil Plc, Enugu Branch.


The following questions are put forward for the purpose of the study:

  1. Is software accounting system able to handle large volume of data or information more than the manual accounting system.
  2. Can software accounting system be more effective in easy retrieval and also provide sufficient storage means for the storing of data than the manual accounting system.
  3. How can software accounting system of accounting provide quick report of forgeries in an organization in other to fight frauds and corruptions more than the manual accounting system.



Here are the following hypotheses that were formulated, tested and validated in the study.


Hypothesis One

H0:Software accounting system is able to handle large volume of data or information than the manual accounting system.

H1:Software accounting system is not able to handle large volume of data than the manual system


Hypothesis Two

H0: Software accounting system is more effective in easy file retrieval and also provide sufficient storage means than the manual accounting system.

H1: Software accounting system is not more effective in easy file retrieval and also cannot provide sufficient storage means than the manual accounting system


Hypothesis Three

H0:Software accounting system can provide quick report of forgeries in an organization more than the manual accounting system

H1:Software accounting system cannot provide quick report of forgeries in an organization more than the manual accounting system



This study has a lot of significance to the educational system and industrial environments.

  • It imparts hold knowledge to the general public who may not have theopportunity of reading some relevant test on software accounting system as well as manual accounting system.
  • It creates new initiative in information expertise sub-sector.
  • Non-computer experts with little or no assistance will be exposed and encourage through this study.
  • It provides important literature for other researchers.
  • It will promote productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in industries since user’s satisfaction is assured as well as error free and speeding reporting system.



The coverage of this study is limited to the study of a comparative analysis of software accounting system and manual accounting system of which particular attention is given using Forte Oil Plc, Enugu.



There is no research work or study that is entirely hitch-free. During the course of this study, a lot of problems prompted up. The main limitation of this research work is time factor. The researcher had limited time with which he used in completing the study. This also created a room for other problems and made data collection a difficult task.


The problem of finance cannot be ruled out any research work of this entails typing, photocopying, transportation etc. The unavailability of material with which to work with constituted the limitation of the research work.


The study is however limited to Forte Oil Plc, Enugu. As well as the following financial areas: Such as general ledger, account payable, account receivable, purchasing, inventory control and cash resources. The research will also provide overall information on software such as peach tree accounting system for windows implementation procedures involved.



SYSTEM: It is an interrelated or interacting element organized into a complex whole. A system is a group of interrelated components working together towards a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process.


SOFTWARE: It is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices. Software is the programs and symbolic languages that control the function of the hardware.


MANUAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: These are those systems in which source document are posted by hands which extends and includes method of processing, recording, journalizing transactions posting to the ledgers, sales, cash receipt and other type of journals.


ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: It is an organized set of manual and computerized accounting methods, procedures and controls established to gather, record, classify, analyze, summarize, interpret and present accurate and timely financial data for management decisions.


ACCOUNTING: It is a system for recording; classifying, measuring, interpreting financial data for an organization to enable users make assessment and decision making.


COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING: It is what businesses used to track their financial information.


COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: It is a system usedby business for recording their financial information. Every time a transaction happens, an entry is made into the system.