1.01 GeneralBackground Of the project design;
Throughout history, education has always been man’s most important activity. Infect, man cannot carry on government, family life, religion or earn a living without some form of education. School then is a shelter and a stage that brings people together on daily business, generating intellectual abilities in life and growing up.
Education can be the transmission of values and accumulated knowledge of a society or the process by which an individual gains skills. Social scientists term it socialization or enculturation. In this context, education shall be defined as “the process in which an individual acquires skills and knowledge of the society in which it is found.”
There are two basic forms of education- Formal and Informal. Formal education is acquired through organized study or instructions. Informal education arises from day-to-day experiences or through relatively unplanned contacts.
Education is designed to guide every child in learning a culture which he/she was born without, molding his behavior towards his adulthood and eventual role in society.
In prehistoric period, education was direct and simple because children initiated what adults did. Each tribe developed certain customs, beliefs and ways of doing things. Education consisted of handing down these folkways from the elders to the young. No schools or teachers in our sense of the words existed (informal education). In early civilization about 3,000 years Before Christ, written languages were created in Middle East and India, and man could now keep records of basic knowledge, beliefs and important customs. When written languages appeared, the school as a special institution for educating the young also appeared. Priests in the religious temples or scribes connected with the king’s offices served as the first teachers.
Education was restricted to a smaller privilege and the purpose was to teach a limited number of boys to read and write, learnt how to keep records of laws, religious beliefs, contracts and business transactions. Girls did not usually to go school.
Children sometimes learnt a trade outside school, by a system of direct apprenticeship to a master craft.
Brief History Of Education, In Nigeria;
There exist three types of education in Nigeria. Indigenous (informed),Muslim, and western (Christian) education. The oldest is the indigenous education.
- Indigenous Education;
The Nigerians indigenous education is as comprehensive in scope as any known system of education though the goals and method of achieving it may differs. It is not institutionalrather it is giving anywhere and at any time without a strict time table. For example children learn farming, wrestling, and carving, not only while at work but also during period of recreation. Moreover, they are no special class of people called teacher. The entire community is involved in the education of the child.
Object such as development of character inculcation of respect for elders, intellectual development and the promotion of skills lead to vocation suitable for their later life are also emphasized.
At the age of eight, specialization would have started. Girls are oriented to become good house wives later, boy’s good farmers, hunters, and carvers and so on. Variousagencies such as age group join in the training.
- Muslim Education;
Islam was first introduced in Bornu during the 11th century Before Christ. By the 14th century it had spread to Hausa land. The system of education which accompanied is divided in three. The first phase begins at the age of five when young Muslim are sent to the “piazza” school where they are thought to memories the Koran in well drawn out stages. They learn how to perform religious duties in or outside the neighborhood.
The second phase begins with a more meaningful study of the Koran, grammar, literature, poetry. Islamic laws and so on. A few advanced students are known to have undertaken the study of astrology, divination and medicines.
The third phase is the continuation of the second phase, the curriculum is much wider, including grammatical inflexion, syntax, arithmetic, algebra, jurisprudence and others.
- Western (Christian) Education;
Thiswas found by Christianmissionary, the church missionary society (C.M.S) the united Free Church, the southern Baptist convention, Roman Catholic mission (R.C.M) etc.
Christianity was introduces in Nigeria in respond to the invitation of some Yorubaemigrant who wanted missionaries to come and instruct them. In 1842 Thomasbirch free of the Wesleyan Methodist missionary society landed in Badagry from the Gold coast and immediately established a mission. The enthusiasm with which he was received encouraged another mission, the church missionary society, to send a party the same year. By 1846, Christianity had been planted also in Abeokuta and between 1842 and 1900 attempts had been made by various other missions to establish themselves in various part of the country.
With the introduction of Christianity western type of education naturally follows as it was a common strategy that as soon as a station was established, one of the first facilities to be provided was a school to recruit young ones who werebelief to easily be attracted.Parents favors the school more than the religious because of the opportunity of learninguseful skills like Arithmetic , reading and writing English and portages. The materials for reading areprovided from chapters in the bible.
These bodies played important roles in charting the pattern of educational development in the country.
In 1903 the southern Nigerians provinceswhere blessed with a department of education which caught the interest of government in designing and implementing educational policies that would enhance colonial and imperial interests. Emphasis where placed on the production of man power, oriented towards the servicing of the machinery of colonial administration and providing support services to commercials and economic imperialists.
The early missionaries were interested in the production of indigenous families who would help in the propagation of western religion. Hence they educational contents formed an important socialization strategy. They aim at producing educating Nigerians who neverthelessare subservient mentally and psychologically. Colonialism could not reach the desirable level of perfection without this development and so the colonialist intensified their efforts in this direction by giving the missionaries necessary encouragement.
When the British left Nigerian in 1960, they left behind an educational situation which exhibited the following features and problems;
- The production of mentally subservient Nigerians
- Excess production white collar applicant and workers
- Little emphasis on technical and trade education
- Structural education imbalance between the north and the south.
- Less emphasis on adult education and extension services.
The missionaries practically did nothing to promote secondary and teacher education because they believedthat higher education was implementing to their work by marking Nigerians becoming materialistic and intellectually arrogant.
Because of the lack of a secondary school presently in Caritas University, the desire to correct some of the identified problems in existing secondary school buildingsshall provide design solution as follows;
- The design that shall seek to develop an architectural element that will portray educational image in Caritas University.
- The need for a structure which shall function (act)as educational research centre. And
- A structure that will meet the demands of all futures of secondary education.
The level of intellectuality and behavior of the society depends largely on the level of education, technology and information available in the country, the falling standard and other problems affecting secondary education in Nigeria is the key motivation of this project.
It is in the view of making a worthwhile impact on the structural input in this sector that this proposal is made which is presumed to be of best interest to the whole community by having functions which will bring back nature in our schools.
Also by the introduction of good structural shelterswhich, will have the architectural face lift and at the same time making it a shade that will be able to cushion adverse effects of the atmospheric elements of every season.
A staff secondary school is one that offers the normal grammar school courses as well as vocational subjects. The problems involved in it are specific definition analysis of the physical needs of the school.
Therefore, the objectives of the proposed secondary school design are as follows;
- To provide facilities for general specialized as well as vocational education under one roof.
- To provide through it varied curriculum, the opportunity for identifying and developing the varied talents of the youth.
- To provide a conducive learning environment.
- To produce a structure that willsinculcate nature, the effect system of guidance into careers and reject harsh/adverse weather conditions thereof.
- To secure equal educational opportunities for all in a functional architectural pleasing structure.
- To up great the level ofintellectuality and behavior of the youth in society.
- Scope and limitation;
Modern staff secondary school can be an institution where an organized and systematic knowledge transferred is made possible by the use of modern infrastructure, technical and science equipments designed to facilitate learning.
The scope of this project shall be limited to the design of the following;
- Administrative Unit
- Classroom complex
- Laboratory unit (s)
- Assembly hall
- Gates house or security post
- Refectory or Dining hall
- Shopping centre
- Research Methodology (project design methods);
The research methodology used in the collection of data in the course of this project includes primary data from case studies, interviews, questionnaires and secondary data from architectural books, magazines, journals, etc. The case study enable the researcher to visit existing secondary school designed by renowned architects which give an insight to the building principles of secondary schools design and planning.
Analysis and Synthesis: This was by breaking down and studying the sites with the environment thoroughly by taking into account the natural and manmade firms, climatic condition and the drainage pattern.
Concept Development: The development of the concept was based on different aspects of design which includes;
- Zoning functions
- Building functions
- Enclosure pattern and structure
Design Synthesis: The concept all combined gave a faint insight of how the design solution would actually be.
Oral Orientation: This was by asking questions to people and particularly to students of secondary school or those yet to leave primary school of their experiences and how it can be improved.
Photographs: Photographs were taking were possible to concretize the purpose of the research.
Questionnaires: By disturbing questionnaires to schools to feed their responses to the questions thrown to them.