Background to the study

Teaching is a set of  events, outside the learners which are designed to support internal process of learning or the process  through which information often education training is passed.  While learning is about a change; the change brought about  by developing a new skill, understanding a scientific law and changing an attitude. Education as a tool for the empowerment and sustainable development is indispensable both to the individual and the state at large. This is one of the major philosophical objectives that education is set to achieve as entrenched in the national policy on education (FRN 2004).

Education is held as a major tool that can liberate a man from the fangs of ignorance. Some of such poverty indicators which education tackles are identified by UBE (2002) to include ignorance, hunger, lack, complex and social weakness among others. Education should be that, that guarantees the development of sterling qualities and skills that will enable one embrace that challenge of leadership and practical statesmanship in the affairs of this country Nigeria.

On attaining Independence status as a nation in 1960 what seemed a major concern to most Nigerian leaders then was how education would be accessible to all citizens of the newly created nation. Education was seen as the necessary instrument immediately and essentially for the consolidation of the independence, for securing the new nation against neo-colonialism and for making workable newly established self-government in a multi-ethnic society. Mass education, at least to the level of literacy, was also seen by the Nigerian leaders to be necessary to create a proper foundation for a democratic government (Best,2011). The desire to use education for nation building was (and is still) very compelling and so much was the faith in education that the schools of the nation were not only meant for political socialization but also for other social functions and for economic growth. To achieve these goals Universal Primary Education (UPE) was introduced nationwide in 1976, although hitherto this has been practiced in some parts of the country. Toward the end of the second decade of achieving nationhood status, therefore, Nigeria witnessed a phenomenal expansion at all levels of her education.

A number of studies have been carried out to identify and analyse the numerous factors that affect secondary school student learning and academic performance in various centres of learning. Their findings identify students’ effort, previous schooling (Siegfried & parents education, family income, self -motivation, age of student, learning preferences (Aripin, Mahmood, Rohaizad, Yeop, & Anuar, 2008), class attendance and entry qualifications as factors that have a significant effect on the students’ academic performance in various settings. The utility of these studies lies in the need to undertake corrective measures that improve the academic learning of students, especially in public funded institutions. The output of public funded institutions is under scrutiny especially because of the current global economic downturn which demands that governments improve efficiency in financial resource allocation and utilization. Although there has been considerable debate about the determinants of effective teaching and learning of secondary school students in respect to their academic performance among educators, policymakers, academics, and other stakeholders, it is generally agreed that the impact of these determinants vary (in terms of extent and direction) with context, for example, culture, institution, course of study etc.

In view of this, federal government of Nigeria in 2001 introduced a new scheme aimed at improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning in Nigeria. But this scheme failed. Therefore, in respect to this, the study is aimed at analysing the factors which militate against effective teaching and learning in Nigeria.

Statement of the Problem

There are range of factors that affect quality of effective teaching and learning performance of secondary school students (Waters & Marzano, 2006). A series of variables are to be considered when to identify the affecting factors towards quality of academic success. Identifying the most contributing variables in quality of academic performance is a very complex and challenging job. Though lack of adequate teaching tools and other environmental factor such as change in a child environment to another environment, ineffective teaching skills of teachers and poor teaching facilities are some of the problem which militate against effective teaching and learning among secondary school students. Based on these factors there are back drops on effective teaching and learning. This is why the researcher has decided to conduct a study to examine  the factors that are militating against effective teaching and learning of secondary school student in Awka south local government,  determining their effects on students’ and also address how tom address these factors to improve on students’ academic performance.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to ascertain the factors that militate against effective teaching and learning among Secondary school students. Specifically, the study will determine

  1. The factors that affects learning among secondary school students.
  2. Ascertain the factors that affect learning among secondary school Students.
  3. Determine the impact of these factors on academic performance of Students in secondary school.
  4. Ways of addressing these factors in order to improve academic performance of secondary school students.

Significant of the Study

The study will be of great benefit to the following: secondary school students, school counsellors and future researchers.

To the students in secondary schools, the study will be of benefit as it will enable them effectively understand the factors militating against effective learning. For school counsellors, the study will enable them see how to effectively counsell students on improving on their study and at the same time see how to improve on the factors that militate against effective learning .  The future researchers, the study will serve as a source of information and reference for their study.

Scope of the Study

In order to adequately carryout the study, the study will cover the factors that militate against effective teaching and learning among secondary school students in Awka south L.G.A and will only be limited to  senior students in secondary schools.

Research Question

In order to give direction to this research, the following research questions were developed and posed.

  1. What are the factors that affect effective teaching in secondary schools?
  2. What factors affect learning among secondary school Students?
  3. What are the effects of those factors on academic performance of secondary school students?
  4. What are the ways of addressing these factors in order to improve academic performance of secondary school students?