Background of the Study
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) can be defined as the microbial invasion of any of the tissues of the urinary tract starting from the renal cortex to the urethral meatus Kunin, 1979 and can affect all the age groups and both genders Orrect and Davis, 2006, Omoregic et al., 2008. They are the most common infections encountered in clinical practice Gatermann et al., 2007. People living with HIV are most liable to acquire opportunistic infections including UTI Schonwald et al., 1999. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is by far the most pressing public health problem we are facing today. This infection is highly fatal due to the unique pathogenesis of the virus which decreases the CD4 cells, thereby predisposing the patient to high opportunistic infections Hannan et al., 1998. These opportunistic infections are the most predominant cause of mortality among HIV patients.
In the view of treating these opportunistic infections, antibiotics are being used. Due to inappropriate use and selective pressures on these drugs they are often abused thereby leading to their resistance in curing some of these diseases. One of the major challenges facing health care today is the ability to control antimicrobial resistance Carlos et al., 2007.
It is therefore important to conduct specific studies on antibiotic susceptibility profile of urinary pathogens isolated from HIV positive patients in comparison to those of normal people as this would go a long way to accessing the problem and aid in developing different forms of intervention. Considering the role of opportunistic bacteria infections in the natural history of AIDS, UNAID, 2004 and the limited reports on antibiotics susceptibility patterns of uropathogenic isolates, it
is timely draw up a tool for prompt diagnosis and specific treatment based on a good knowledge of common urinary tract infections and their antibiotic susceptibility profile.
We therefore will embark on this study to ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility profile of uropathogens from HIV/AIDS patients and non HIV/AID individuals with urinary tract infections. The findings will be useful to the relevant health personnel who are often constrained by time in the course of effective management of HIV/AIDS patients.
1.1 Aim of the Study
The aim of this research is to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of uropathogens in HIV/AIDS patients and Non HIV/AIDS individuals, using the common antibiotics available and also to determine the most frequent urinary pathogens associated with HIV/AIDS patients in comparison with those of HIV negative individuals.
1.2 Objective of the Study
- To determine the bacterial isolates commonly present in the urine samples of both subject respectively.
- To evaluate the sensitivity of the antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections.
- To determine the isolates that is highly susceptible to the antibiotics used to treat infection.
- To determine the isolates that are highly resistant to the antibiotics used and why.
1.3 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
1A Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is significant difference between the incidence
of urinary tract infection in HIV/AIDS patients and non HIV/AIDS individuals.
- The Alternative (H1): There is no significant difference between the incidence of urinary tract infection in HIV/AIDS patients and non HIV/AIDS individuals.
2 A. Null Hypotheses (Ho): There is significant difference between antibiotic susceptibility profile of isolated uropathogens in HIV/AIDS patients and non HIV/AIDS individuals.
- Alternative (H1): There is no significant difference in Antibiotic susceptibility profile of uropathogens isolated in HIV/AIDS patients and non HIV/AIDS individuals.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will create a baseline data for anticipated uropathogens associated with people with low immune system. It will also help create awareness of drugs that are to importance in curing of such isolated uropathogens. This work will help improve the health of HIV positive subjects and reduce rate of high motility among them. It will also help the world health organization (WHO) to look into the direction of providing more potent antimicrobial agents.