1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Energy is commonly defined as the ability to do work or to produce heat.
Normally heat could be derived by burning a fuel (i.e. a substance that contains
internal energy which upon burning generates heat). (IEA, 2004).
The energy system today is highly dependent on fossil fuel with coal, fuel oil and
natural gas accounting for about 80% of world primary energy demand. (Kul,
Fuels are the major source of energy for industries and cement industry is not an
exception. However, the energy source to be adopted will have to meet the varying
needs of different countries and at the same time enhance the security of each
against the energy crisis that have taken place in the past. The selection/ choice of
fuel type depend on various factors such as environmental pollution, ease in
processing, storage and handling, availability and cost of the fuel.
Coal, fuel oil and natural gas are the most commonly used energy carrier in cement
industries. The energy use for cement production is distributed as follows:-
92.7% for pyro-processing
5.4% for finishing grinding and
1.9% for raw grinding (Choate, 2003).
The choice of fuel use entails the level at which green house gases (GHG) are
emitted, the cost of cement and the quality of the cement produced.
This research work will help in selecting the best fuel and techniques to be use in
order to attain a high quality product at a lower cost with lesser green house gas
emission to the environment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The choice of fuel is attained by comparative analysis of coal, fuel oil and natural
gas in cement production. In comparing these fuels, the following problem arises:-
Knowledge of the physio- chemical properties of coal, fuel oil and natural
Knowledge of the green houses gases (GHG) emitted by each of these fuel,
their level of emission and their effects on the environment and humans
health (esp. cement workers).
Knowledge of the cost and availability of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aims of this research work is to;
Study the physical and chemical properties of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.
Gain knowledge on the green house gases (GHG) emitted, their effect on the
environment and humans health and the level of emission from each fuel.
Study coal, fuel oil and natural gas in relation to cost and availability.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
With the growth in industrialization today, this study will offer numerous values both
to the cement industry and staff, the environment and society at large.
It will choose an economical and less hazardous fuel and techniques for cement
Also, it will help in the selection of techniques /fuel that will reduce the emission of
green house gases (GHG) from cement industries to the environment. This gases
emitted causes acid rain, smog etc. which can cause cancer to human and destroys
In terms of infrastructural development, an economical fuel for production will lead
to a reduction in the cost of cement, thereby encouraging the development of
buildings and Government in development of roads, bridges, and other
construction- oriented projects.
This study will also give students of chemical engineering and other related courses
an insight of these fuels with their different environmental implications, properties
and choice of fuel when combustion of fuel is required.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This study would have covered all the Nigerian cement industries but due to time
and cost of analysis, it is limited to three(3) cement industries namely:- Dangote
Cement in Gboko -Benue State, United Cement Company in Calabar – Cross River
State(UniCem), and Nigerian Cement Company in Nkalagu -Ebonyi State
(NigerCem) of which each uses Fuel oil, natural gas and coal respectively as
The intention of the study is to cover the effects of coal, fuel oil and natural gas in
the production of cement with reference to cost, storage and handling, availability,
product quality and environmental impact.