With dandruff being everyday problem and the market loaded with antidandruff shampoos and such skin care products; it is obvious to assume resourceful research into this area. To check its antidandruff activity, experiments was conducted on Malassezia furfur the causal organism for dandruff which was isolated using SDA with olive oil. The cup plate method was used to compare the antidandruff activities of the synthetic shampoos and plant extracts. Among the plant extracts tested, Lemon showed the highest zone followed by lime, Neem plant and aloe vera while among the synthetic antidandruff shampoo venoz showed the highest zone followed by Adal A hair shampoo, vintage and 24 hours shampoo. Comparatively the plant extracts shampoos showed a high zone of inhibition than the shampoos. Medicinal plants have some natural Antimicrobial property and therefore such combination could be a potential antidandruff activity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page iii
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
LITERATURE REVIEW 3
Plants Used 10
Aloe Vera 13
Neem Plant 18
MATERIALS AND METHODS 22
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Active Ingredients in Different Commercially Available Shampoos 6
Table 2: Different Plant Extracts used 20
Table 3: Morphological and Biochemical Characteristic of Dandruff
causing Isolate 24
Table 4: Zone of inhibition of plant extracts. 27
Table 5: Zone of inhibition of antidandruff shampoos 27
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Lime 10
Figure 2: Aloe Vera 12
Figure 3: Lemon 14
Figure 4: Neem Plant 17
Figure 5: Microscopic view of fungi isolate 25
Figure 6: Chart showing the zones of inhibition 28
Dandruff is a scalp disorder which is characterized by excessive shedding of skin cells from the scalp. It is a common problem faced by people of all age groups. As the epidermal layer continually replaces itself, cells are pushed outward where they eventually die and flake off. For most individuals, these flakes of skin are too small to be visible. However, certain conditions cause cell turnover to be unusually rapid, especially in the scalp. It is hypothesized that for people with dandruff, skin cells may mature and be shed in 2–7 days, as opposed to around a month in people without dandruff. The result is that dead skin cells are shed in large, oily clumps, which appear as white or grayish flakes on the scalp, skin and clothes (De Angelis et al., 2005). Yeast like lipophilic basidiomyceteous fungus Malassezia furfur [Pytirosporum ovale] is the causative organism for dandruff (Arora et al., 2011).
Malassezia converts the sebum lipid into fatty acids and triglycerides, which accelerate hyperproliferation of keratinoytes (Singla et al., 2011). The treatment options [ointments, lotions, shampoos] currently available for management of dandruff have zinc pyrithione, salicylic acid, imidazole derivatives, selenium sulphide, tar derivatives, ketocanazole etc. as key ingredients (Vijayakumar et al.,2006). These synthetic treatment options have certain limitations, which may be due to poor efficacies or due to compliance issues (Vijayakumar et al., 2006). These are unable to prevent reoccurrence of dandruff with side effects that cannot be neglected. The best approach to treat dandruff is to use plants and herbal formulations which possess antidandruff properties. Studies evaluating antifungal effect of essential oils have also been reported (Lee et al., 2010: Arora et al., 2013). Antifungal activity of different plant extracts against Malassezia furfur is carried out in this work. Various natural plant extracts are known for their antidandruff properties. Evaluation of anti-fungal properties of such plant extracts can be done and they can be used effectively as an alternative to chemical agents in various anti dandruff formulations. Along with anti-fungal properties, plant extracts are also known for their conditioning properties which will be fruitful in maintaining the overall health of scalp and hair (Balakrishnan et al., 2011).
Older literature cites the fungus Malassezia globosa (previously known as Pityrosporum ovale) as the cause of dandruff. While this species does occur naturally on the skin surface of both healthy people and those with dandruff, in 2007 it was discovered that the responsible agent is a scalp specific fungus, Malassezia furfur that metabolizes triglycerides present in sebum by the expression of lipase, resulting in a lipid by-product oleic acid. The increasing antimicrobial resistance exhibited by microorganisms causing dandruff infections has led to extensive research on the therapeutic potential of anti dandruff herbal plants.
This work is aimed at investigating the organism causing dandruff and comparing the effectiveness of synthetic antidandruff shampoo and various natural plants extracts which are known for their antidandruff properties.