The government invests so much in population census. With the rapid increment in population growth, population census in not getting any easier. Economic meltdown is threatening the nations and yet more is spent on census. Worse yet is the corrupt mind of census agent. These ones do not carry out this population task thoroughly. They mess around the census exercise and make away with the remaining money. What do we do? How can we improve this situation? What can we do to get a complete and accurate population statistics? How do we curb this mischief?
Determined to solve the above problem is the project ‘design and implementation of a population calculator.’ This calculator calculates the number of humans in a given place (be it local government, state or country) and outputs the answer as a figure. The calculator does this with only two information or parameters from the user. The application need the initial size of the nation (or the sample space) and the rate of increment or decrement.
The proper procedures for carrying out a research were followed. Various data were gathered during the research. Structured system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) was used to achieve the proposed objectives.
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. In ecology the population of a certain species in a certain area is estimated using the Lincoln Index. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Normally breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border. In sociology, population refers to a collection of human beings. Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations. This project refers mainly to human population. That is For the purpose of this project, we regard population as the sum total of all human beings and not any other organisms or species.
A statistical population is a set of entities concerning which statistical inferences are to be drawn, often based on a random sample taken from the population. For example, if we were interested in generalizations about crows, then we would describe the set of crows that is of interest. Notice that if we choose a population like all crows, we will be limited to observing crows that exist now or will exist in the future. In addition, geography will also constitute a limitation in that our resources for studying crows are also limited.
The term statistical population is also used to refer to a set of potential measurements or values, including not only cases actually observed but those that are potentially observable. Suppose, for example, we are interested in the set of all adult crows now alive in the county of Cambridgeshire, and we want to know the mean weight of these birds. For each bird in the population of crows there is a weight, and the set of these weights is called the population of weights.
- BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Population growth increased significantly as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards. The last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity, particularly beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2007 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world’s population will likely surpass 10 billion in 2055.
In the future, world population has been expected to reach a peak of growth, there it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is very likely that the world’s population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will actually decline before 2100. Population has already declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by gradually declining birth rates following an earlier sharp reduction in death rates. This transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates is often referred to as the demographic transition. As the population increases like this, it is hard to keep on counting humans so we have to device something that will be calculation the population for us anytime we want.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The population of human changes rapidly. Known population of human in a nation or a particular time is only correct at the moment. Thereafter, the population out grows the number. To maintain accurate statistical information at any point in time, there is need for update. Updating of population information implies having the nearest correct sum total of human beings in the sample space. This is hard to know by guess work and it is not feasible to conducting census every now and then.
Furthermore there is no guarantee that the personnel chosen for the service will do it well. In view of all these we set out to develop a system that will solve the following problems:
- Inaccuracy due to human error
- Time wasted during population census exercise.
- Inaccuracy due to corruption and fraud
- Rapid outdating of information due to rapid growth of population.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The existing system has been thoroughly investigated and the problems identified. The next is to set out the objectives that will lessen the problem found in the existing system. The objectives of the existing system are numbered below:
To produce a system that will produce statistical data to the governmental authorities.
To produce a system that will provide a fast and timely service.
To provide a system that will calculate the sum total of the population of the given nation or sample space.
To produce a system that is cheap to operate thereby reducing cost of management for governments.
To develop a system that is free from redundancy and corruption.
To produce a system that will generate information for journalist and new broadcasters for the enlightening of the nation.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Participating in the census is in everyone’s best interest, because the information on the forms is used by decision-makers to determine which communities, schools, hospitals and roads need federal funding. Filling out your census form is also the best way to make sure people like you are represented in the census.
Here are just a few examples of significance of population calculation:
- The federal government uses census numbers to allocate over N100 billion in federal funds annually for community programs and services, such as education programs, housing and community development, health-care services for the elderly, job training and many more.
- State, local and tribal governments use census information for planning and allocating funds for new school construction, libraries and other public buildings, highway safety and public transportation systems, new roads and bridges, location of police and fire departments and many other projects.
- Community organizations use census information to develop social service programs, community action projects, senior lunch programs and child-care centers.
- Businesses use the numbers to decide where to locate factories, shopping centers, movie theaters, banks and offices — activities that often lead to new jobs.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project has a wide scope in the society. The project is not limited to a particular national group. The program can be adopted by virtually every group because the necessary thing there is the population growth and the increment rate.
The project thus has a limited scope when it comes to gender. The project takes not of the sum total of the population as a whole regardless of whether they are male or female. The program does not output the ratio of male to female. That is beyond the scope of this work.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There are some uncontrollable factors that affected the quality of my research. Diverse problems were encountered during gathering data from population experts. The calculation took several equipment and time. There was also financial set back or constraints during my research which was caused by the political and economic state of the nation. Some professional were reluctant to give me the formula for the population calculation.
The problem of power is the paramount limitation encountered. The work would have assumed a wider scope if I had a constant power supply.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This section contains the definition of terms found kin this work.
A social unit consisting of a person living alone or a group of persons who: a) sleep in the same housing unit; and b) have a common arrangement for the preparation and consumption of food.
The aggregate of private household population. Compared to total population, this excludes population enumerated in institutional households such as national/provincial/municipal/city jails/detention centers, military camps, tuberculosis pavilions, mental hospitals, leprosaria/leper colonies or drug rehabilitation centers.
Migration Rate, Net–
The ratio of the difference between the in-migrants and out-migrants in a population to the mid-year population during the same period.
Covers both nationals and aliens, native and foreign-born persons, intemees, refugees and any other group physically present within the borders of a country at a specified time. In assembling national demographic statistics for publication, the basic aim has been to obtain data for the physically present (or de facto) population rather than for the legally established resident (or de jure) inhabitants.
The ratio between males and females in a population expressed in number of males per 100 females.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF WORK
In this chapter, attention has been given to population. This chapter contains also the statement of problem, objectives and scope of the project.
In chapter two, I made a review of population census and the related works.
In chapter three I have the research methodology, the step followed. Analysis of the existing system.
In chapter four, I showed the design and implementation of the system, the data dictionary, input-output specification, table format/structure, hardware and software requirement.
In chapter five I have recommendation and future development; Summary, conclusion and references.
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