- Background of the Study
Management Information System (MIS) is a system or a process that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. MIS and the information it generates are generally considered essential components of prudent and reasonable business/organizational decisions. MIS should have a clearly defined frame work of guidelines, polices or practices, standards and procedures for the organization or institution Michael, T.G (2009).
An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people’s activities using that technology to support operations, management, and decision-making. In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, algorithmic processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.
Alter (2002) argues that an information system is a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans and/or machines perform work using resources (including ICT) to produce specific products and/or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to processing (capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying) information.
Throughout the 1970s this was largely limited to files, file maintenance, and the life cycle management of paper-based files, other media and records. With the proliferation of information technology starting in the 1970s, the job of information management took on a new light, and also began to include the field of data maintenance (Neo et al, 2003). No longer was information management a simple job that could be performed by almost anyone. An understanding of the technology involved, and the theory behind it became necessary. As information storage shifted to electronic means, this became more and more difficult. By the late 1990s when information was regularly disseminated across computer networks and by other electronic means, network managers, in a sense, became information managers. With the latest tools available, information management has become a powerful resource and a large expense, as well as risk, for many organizations.
MIS finds application in many institutions; financial, Health, Educational, Government and other corporate institutions. The government institution which is the scope of this study uses MIS at different levels to keep track of some government activities as it relates to political parties in Nigeria.
Security is the most vital aspect of every society all over the globe irrespective of the location. Conventionally the management of records and profile is in our police stations are done manually by writing on paper, filing and categorizing the collected data and storing them in a cabinet or shelves. This method is slow and painstaking as retrieval of this data involves searching through hundreds or thousands of files to retrieve a small piece of information depending on the size of institution. Also error rate due to human factor was high.
Since the Nigerian independence in October 1, 1960 and the adoption of democracy, many political parties have been formed, most of this parties merged to form a stronger part, while some folded up entirely. However, since the inauguration of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), political parties have been force to operate and form their policies in accordance with the INEC policies. This research focuses in developing an information system for all existing Nigerian political parties recognized by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). An information system like this will be efficient in computer based data storage, information retrieval and future reference to already existing information
1.2 Statement of the Problem
With the fast-growing of digital information and network technologies and the desire for a more convenient system in recent years, the government is working towards having a technology driven society. Some of the challenges we identified currently faced by the INEC with respect to political parties are:
- No centralized database system for storing information of political parties both exiting and old ones
- Slow retrieval of information pertaining to the different political parties due to the file based approach. The records rooms is heaped with files, which some have been documented for a long time.
- Slow registration process for political parties because most things are done manually. Due to the lengthy process involved in party registration, an online system can reduce the time spent during the entire process.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to design and implement a management information system for Nigerian Political Parties. The specific objectives include:
- Registration of all existing political party under INEC
- Provide a friendly interface for accessing information in confidence and make certain proper identification technique of each party.
- Provide a secure login authentication for administrative users
- Create a centralized database as to reduce paper work.
1.4 Significance of Study
An information system for the political parties under the INEC will significantly:
- Save time and cost.
- Automate the mechanism for search and retrieval of information and make it almost instant for the management
- Provide a centralized database for all information concerning these parties, for future reference
1.5 Scope of Study
The scope of this study is limited to designing Management Information System for all existing political parties currently under the Independent National Electoral Commission, Nigeria which will serves as centralized repository of information. The system will automate the process of party registration, party verification and approval, party registry with governing bodies.
1.6 Limitations of Study
In the course of our study, some limitations were encountered. The limitations encountered include:
- Limited access to the INEC office.
- Epileptic power supply and poor internet facilities
- Limited access to the staff and unwillingness to answer questions and provide relevant information.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Information: Computer facts provided or learned about something
Management: The process of dealing with or controlling things or people.
INEC: Abbreviation for Independent National Electoral Commission. The body that oversee all the political parties in Nigeria.
Organization: an organized group of people with a particular purpose
System: A collection of related items that work together to achieve a particular goal
Party: a political group considered as a formal whole, united under one specific political platform of issues and campaigning to take part in government
Government: the body with the power to make and/or enforce laws to control a country, land area, people or organization
Political: concerning or relating to politics, the art and process of governing
MIS: Abbreviation for Management Information System. System that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively.
IM: Abbreviation for Information Management. Information management is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one more audiences.