Diseases must be treated healthy and on time. If they are not treated on time, they can escort to many health problems with these problems might become the reason of death. These problems are becoming inferior due to the scarcity of specialists, health facilities and practitioners. In an attempt to address such problems, studies ended attempts toward design and develop expert systems which can present advice for physicians and patients to make easy the diagnosis along with recommend treatment of patients. This review paper represents a comprehensive study of medical expert systems used for diagnosis of various diseases. It provides a concise overview of medical diagnostic expert systems along with presents an analysis of already existing studies
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 2
1.4 METHODOLOGY 3
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 3
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 3
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY 4
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS/VARIABLES 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 INTRODUCTION 6
2.1 OVERVIEW OF EXPERT SYSTEM 6
2.2 MEDICAL EXPERT SYSTEMS 6
2.3 STRUCTURE OF MEDICAL EXPERT SYSTEMS 7
2.4 EXISTING MEDICAL EXPERT SYSTEMS 8
2.4.1 EXPERT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF INFLUENZA
UNDER UNCERTAINTY 9
2.4.2 FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF RISK OF
2.4.3 RULE BASED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MEMORY LOSS DISEASE 10
2.4.4 FUZZY SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER DISORDER 10
2.4.5 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR DIAGNOSIS OF
HEART DISEASE 11
2.5 APPLICATION OF EXPERT SYSTEMS 11
2.5 HISTORY OF DELACK HOSPITALS 11
2.6 ORGANOGRAM OF DELACK HOSPITALS 12
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 INTRODUCTION 13
3.1 ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM 13
3.2 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM 14
3.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 14
3.4 SYSTEM DESIGN 15
3.4.1 FLOWCHART 15
3.4.2 UML DIAGRAM 18
3.5 DATABASE STRUCTURE 19
3.5.1 OUTPUT STRUCTURE 19
3.5.2 INPUT STRUCTURE 20
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION
4.0 INTRODUCTION 22
4.1 CHOICE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE AND DATABASE 22
4.2 SYSTEM REQUIREMENT 22
4.2.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS 22
4.2.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS 23
4.3 RESULT INTERFACE 23
4.4 SYSTEM TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION 25
4.5 DESCRIPTION OF FINDINGS 27
4.6 SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION 28
4.6.1 HOW TO LOAD THE SOFTWARE 28
4.6.2 HOW TO RUN THE SOFTWARE 28
4.6.3 THE PLATFORM 28
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY 29
5.2 CONCLUSION 29
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 29
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Admin Table 19
Table 3.2: Enquiry Table 19
Table 3.3: Ailment Table 20
Table 4.1: Page Authenticity Test 26
Table 4.2: Search Module Test 26
Table 4.3: Form Fill Test 27
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Organogram of Delack Hospital 12
Figure 3.1: User Flowchart 15
Figure 3.2: Admin Flowchart 16
Figure 3.3: Search Flowchart 17
Figure 3.3: Search Flowchart 18
Figure 3.4: Input Structure for enquiry 20
Figure 3.5: Input Structure for ailment 21
Figure 3.6: Input Structure for search 21
Figure 4.1: Homepage 23
Figure 4.2: Ailments 24
Figure 4.3: Enquiry 24
Figure 4.4: Manage Enquiry 25
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An expert system is a software system that attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain, and is a traditional application and/or subfield of artificial intelligence. A wide variety of methods can be used to simulate the performance of the expert however common to most or all are
- The creation of a so-called “knowledgebase which uses some knowledge representation formalism to capture the subject matter experts (SME) knowledge and
- A process of gathering that knowledge from the SME and codifying it according to the formalism, which is called knowledge engineering.
Expert systems may or may not have learning components but a third common element is that once the system is developed it is proven by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation as the human SME, typically as an aid to human workers or a supplement to some information system.
As a premiere application of computing and artificial intelligence, the topic of expert systems has many points of contact with general systems theory, operations research, business process reengineering and various topics in applied mathematics and management science.
Two illustrations of actual expert systems can give an idea of how they work. In one real world case at a chemical refinery a senior employee was about to retire and the company was concerned that the loss of his expertise in managing a fractionating tower would severely influence operations of the plant. A knowledge engineer was assigned to produce an expert system reproducing his expertise saving the company the loss of the valued knowledge asset. Similarly, a system called Mycin was developed from the expertise of best diagnosticians of bacterial infections whose performance was found to be as good as or better than the average clinician was. An early commercial success and illustration of another typical application (a task generally considered overly complex for a human) was an expert system fielded by DEC in the 1980s to quality check the configurations of their computers prior to delivery. The eighties were the time of greatest popularity of expert systems and interest lagged after the onset of the AI Winter
In like manner, developing one of such system to represent the repository of the knowledge of a medical doctor is as essential as any other expert system.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Health care facility should be accessible by all at all times. However, some of the people that should access these facilities are far removed from these facilities. More so, in the few available facilities, qualified medical personnel are always key issues that need urgent redress.
In view of the foregoing, it would be of great necessity to provide a computerized system that will provide a complementary medical service, such as medical disease information in places where accessibility is a problem as well as health care facilities where qualified experts are lacking, hence this topic, Medical Expert System.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research work is to develop an expert system for Delack hospitals. The objectives include the design of a system
- That has readily available medical information on certain diseases.
- That illustrates the use of search engine
- Where enquiry can be made and instant response will be gotten via email
- That helps patient examine himself based on simple clinical signs.
Lastly, it also targets towards contributing to academic research work.
The system adopts PHP as the design software and requires MySQL as the database.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
If this prototype is fully developed will be very useful in many areas such as:
- It will help to retain the skill of an expert medical doctor in case of any eventuality;
- It can support academic development;
- It can be useful in many hospitals, both private and government, cases where the expert is not on seat;
- It can also be used in the laboratory for quick research work.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The scope of the research work gives access to users a readily available knowledge based where information on cause, symptoms, complications and treatments of a particular ailment can be accessed. The system is divided into 2 major modules, which include the admin page and the user page.
The users reads information about ailments on the ailment page and can make use of the search module to navigate directly to a certain ailment (as long as the information is available). The users can also make enquiry and get feedback via email from the admin.
The admin manages the flow of information on the system by adding, removing and updating ailments. Furthermore, the admin also manages the enquiry page.
The scope of this work will include the following
- A dynamic database system that can act as a knowledge based system
- A complete model of an expert system to portray sample troubleshooter
- To implement a dynamic search system
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The system is not an expert system in a broad sense; it is just a part of an expert system and the users will be limited accessing the ailments and enquiry page while the admin will be limited to managing records of ailments and enquiries.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS/VARIABLES
Diagnose: The identifying of an illness or disorder in a patient through physical examination, medical tests, or other procedures
Medical: Relating to medicine, physical examination to determine health: a physical examination by a doctor to check
Expert: Somebody with a great deal of knowledge, skill, training, or experience in a particular field or activity e.g. A medical expert
Knowledge-based: Information system that store wealth of ones knowledge
Symptoms: Signs of an ill health