This introductory chapter sets the frame for the research. It begins with an introduction to the study and looks at the background of the project. It goes further to identify the research problem, the research objectives and questions, scope of the system and project organization.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT The History of Traffic Management System started in 1972 to centrally control the freeway system in the Twin Cities metro area. The Traffic Management System aims to provide motorists with a faster, safer trip on metro area freeways by optimizing the use of available freeway capacity, efficiently managing incidents and special events, providing traveler information, and providing incentives for ride sharing. (The Minnesota Department of Transportation) Cities and traffic have developed hand-in-hand since the earliest large human settlements. The Same forces that draw inhabitants to congregate in large urban areas also lead to sometimes intolerable levels of traffic congestion on urban streets. Cities are the powerhouses of economic growth for any country. According to Bartone et al. (1994), around eighty percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in developing countries is expected to come from cities. For the purpose of economic activities, it is imperative to facilitate movements. Transportation system provides the way for movements and medium for reaching destinations. Inadequate transportation system hampers economic activities and creates hindrances for development. In most of the developing countries which are overburdened by rising population and extreme poverty, increasing economic activities and opportunities in the cities result in rapid increase in urban population and consequent need for transportation facilities. Authorities in these countries often fail to cope with the pressure of increasing population growth and economic activities in the
cities, causing uncontrolled expansion of the cities, urban sprawl, traffic congestion and environmental degradation. Transportation and property are important in physical and economic development of towns and cities all over the world. Property and land values tend to increase in areas with expanding transportation networks, and increase less rapidly in areas without such improvements. Rapid and continued rise in housing and land prices are expected in cities with transportation improvements and rapid economic and population growth (Goldberg, 1970). Man, nations, regions and the world would be severely limited in development without transportation, which is a key factor for physical and economic growth (Oyesiku, 2002). Transportation systems and land use are interdependent. Indeed findings of earlier studies indicate compelling and consistent connections amongst them (Ewing and Cervero, 2001; Polzin, 2004). According to Bailey, Mokhtarian, and Littlel (2008), transportation route is part of distinct development pattern or road network and mostly described by regular street patterns as an indispensable factor of human existence, development and civilization. The route network coupled with increased transport investment result in changed levels of accessibility reflected through Cost Benefit Analysis, savings in travel time, and other benefits. These benefits are noticeable in increased catchment areas for services and facilities like shops, schools, offices, banks, and leisure activities. Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility, connectivity and Traffic density, level of service, compactness and density of particular roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than overall speed of the journey (Mannering, Walter, and Scott, 2004). Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Modern businesses, industries, trades and general
activities depend on transport and transport infrastructure, with movement of goods and services from place to place becoming vital and inseparable aspects of global and urban economic survival. Developments of various transportation modes have become pivotal to physical and economic developments. Such modes include human porterage, railways, ropeways and cableways, pipelines, inland waterways, sea, air, and roads (Said and Shah, 2008).
Sub-Saharan Africa, with few exceptions, is unique in that the roads that have been created are inefficient and insufficient to spawn and sustain growth, and require not only substantial upgrading and rehabilitation, but also substantial new road construction. Many nations that have not had the opportunity to fully develop road infrastructure systems are now discovering the standards and methods from neighboring or western countries which they have been relying upon are not altogether applicable to their circumstances (Arumala and Akpokodje, 1987). This inapplicability stems from differing climatic circumstances (heavy rain events), complex and deep stratigraphy of soils, highly plastic and highly decomposed materials characteristic of tropical/sub-tropical environments, lack of aggregate/high quality materials, and large (and increasing) transport distances of materials to the construction site. There is also a difference in terms of need that is not addressed in the standard manuals and application guidelines of other countries.
Transport is critical to economic development, both low volume/rural roads and major arterials, and there is a direct relationship between a countries economic prosperity and kilometers of paved roads (Owen, 1964; Queiroz and Gautam, 1992). While there are many papers and reports on the merits of the rural road sector (World Bank’s sub-Saharan African Transport Policy being a major source; World Bank, 1996)) and the fact that all-season pass ability and lack of basic access to rural communities impedes economic growth, there is also a need to further develop and rehabilitate the major trunk system within these countries to be able to sustain and accommodate economic growth brought about by improved rural mobility
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Traffic congestion has been one of the fundamental problems faced by modern cities since the wide usage of automobiles. Just a normal few minutes trip to the convenience store may take up to half an hour due to traffic jam or slowdown. According to the police, congestions are actually the causes of some issues like road rage, road bullies and major accidents. The small road capacity is also one of the contributing factors. As the number of private cars increases greatly over the years, traffic congestion occurs when the needed road capacity is not fulfilled. Simple improvements of the road infrastructure can easily solved this problem. Since congestion occurs frequently in the cities, local government municipal can consider passing laws on restricting the number of car owned in a family. This method is in fact, workable and effective.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The purpose of Traffic Management System is to improve transport operations and transport services profitability, reduce traffic jams and fatalities, provide sufficient driving training, maintain road infrastructure, and maintain traffic law enforcement.
1.4 PROJECT OBJECTIVES:
1.4.1 Main Objectives
The main objective of this system is to provide convenience to the management team by developing a digital system to make processes regarding Traffic Management easier.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
Here are some of specific objectives of the project:
1. To provide direct access to Drivers through web application system.
2. To view current status of all cars such as Targo numbers, tax or car information.
3. To decrease Speed car as to avoid accidents and Jams.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
a. How to provide convenience to the management team by developing a digital system to make processes regarding Traffic Management easier?
b. How to provide direct access to drivers?
c. How can the traffic officials search and update the information included in the system?
1.6 THE SCOPE OF THE SYSTEM
1.6.1 Geographical Scope
This study was investigated the Traffic Management System in Mogadishu-Somalia
1.6.2 Content Scope
The study was focused on how Traffic work and their performances.
1.6.3 Time Scope
This study was conducted March-June, 2017
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
This study will provide better understanding about the projects and policies of the Traffic Management System. It is important to the sense that is explores the major problems encountered by the Traffic Officials, Motorists and the Public.
1.8 PROJECT ORGANIZATION:
Chapter One: discuss on introduction of this project. This chapter includes Introduction, Background, Problem statements, purpose of the study, Objectives of study, Research Questions, Scope of the study, Significance of the study and Organizational project.
Chapter Two: is literature review and related work that will explain Introduction, Concepts Opinions or Ideas from Authors/Experts, previous work / existing system, Gap and Chapter summary.
Chapter Three: Requirement Analysis: we will be discussed the proposed approach and entire draft of the project that taken in the development of this project such as:
introduction, User requirement analysis, preliminary investigation, Organizational profile, current system, limitation of the current system, Data gathering, DFD, UML, problem statement, Feasibility study and User requirement specification.
Chapter Four: System Design: this chapter will be discussed how the system design that include: Introduction, design goal, Database design, Entity relationship diagram, Data dictionary, Table design, Form design and Report design.
Chapter Five: System Development: this chapter will be discussed how the system development that includes: Introduction, Coding Phase, Types of testing, User Documentation and Implementations.
Chapter Six: Recommendation & Conclusion: this chapter will be discussed the conclusion of the system development that includes: Introduction, Conclusion, Concluding Remarks, References and Appendixes.
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