TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Content v
- Background Information 1
- Problem Statement 4
- Objectives of the Study 5
- Hypothesis 6
- Justification 6
2.0 Conceptual Framework 7
2.1 Origin of Pigs 7
2.2 Pig Production, Breeds and Selection of Breeding Stock 8
2.3 Pig Selection 10
2.4 Pig Keeping Practices and Management System 10
2.4.1 Extensive System 10
2.4.2 Semi-intensive System 11
2.4.3 Intensive Pig Production 13
2.4.4 Management of Boar 13
2.4.5 Management of Sow 14
2.4.6 Management of Weaners 15
2.4.7 Management of Growing and Finishing Pigs (Fatteners 16
2.4.8 Record Keeping 18
2.4.9 Diseases and Parasites Control Techniques 19
2.5 Theoretical Framework 20
2.5.1 Empirical Framework 20
2.5.2 Analytical Framework 23
2.5.3 Percentage 24
2.5.4 Gross Margin 24
2.5.5 Regression Analysis 25
2.5.6 Economic Analysis 25
3.1 Study Area 26
3.2 Sampling Technique 27
3.3 Data Collection 27
3.4 Data Analysis 28
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Socio-economic Characteristics of the Farmers 29
4.1.1 Age 29
4.1.2 Sex 30
4.1.3 Marital Status 30
4.1.4 Educational Qualification 31
4.1.5 Household Size 32
4.1.6 Production Experience 32
4.1.7 Farm Size 33
4.1.8 Enterprise 34
4.2Production System 35
4.2.1 System of Rearing Pigs 35
4.2.2 Breeds of Pigs 36
4.2.3 Litter Size 37
4.3 Cost and Return of Pig Production per Cycle 38
4.4 Factors that Affect Piggery Production 40
4.5 Constraints of Pig Famers 41
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 43
5.2 Conclusion 44
5.3 Recommendation 45
This study analyzed the economics of piggery production in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State. The specific objectives were; to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers in the study area, ascertain the production system practiced by the farmers, ascertain the cost and return of piggery production, determine the factors that affect piggery production and to identify the constraints encountered by the farmers. Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the 30 respondents, who were purposively selected from six communities out of ten communities that made up Ihiala. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as Mean, Frequency and Percentage, Gross Margin and Multiple Regression. Objectives I, II and V were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics, objective III was analyzed Gross Margin Analysis, while objective IV was analyzed using Multiple Regression in four functional forms and also used in testing of the hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that 46.67% of the respondents were between 51 to 60 years of age with mean age of 48years. 93.33% of them were males, 60% of them were married, and 43.33% of them had formal education (Secondary). The mean farm size was 54 pigs and average of 16pigs per production cycle. 46.67% of them had household size between 4 to 6 and a mean household size of 6persons. 50% of them had years of experience between 6 to10 and mean years of experience of 8years. 80% of them were engaged in intensive system of production. 53.33% of them, reared large white more than other breeds. The average income generated was N2, 061, 300 and the average cost of production (fixed and variable cost) was N1, 382, 100. The net revenue was N679, 200. Therefore, pig production was profitable in the study area. Farm size and household size were significantly and positively related to output at 1% and 10% with 0.853 and 0.531 respectively. The major constraints encountered by the respondents were; inadequate fund (93.33%), high cost of labour (80%) and non-availability of good breed (80%). The study therefore, recommends that pig farmers in the study area should from cooperative society in order to address the problem of inadequate fund which was recorded as the highest constraint to pig production.
1.1 Background Information
Livestock is one of the fastest growing agricultural sub sectors in developing countries with Agricultural Gross Domestic Product of 33 per cent and is rapidly increasing. Livestock products contribute 17 per cent to kilocalorie (a non S.I unit of energy equal to 100 calories) consumption and 33 per cent to protein consumption globally, but there is large discrepancy between rich and poor countries (Rosegrant et al. 2009). According to World Bank (2009), livestock systems is said to have both positive and negative effects on public health, social equity, natural resources and economic growth. This growth is attributed to the increasing demand for livestock products, as a result of population growth, urbanization and increasing incomes in developing countries (Delgado 2010). The total meat production in the developing world tripled between 1980 and 2002, from 45 to 134 million tons (World Bank, 2009). Livestock production and products in industrialized countries account for 53 per cent of agricultural gross domestic product (World Bank, 2009). Ezeibe (2014) also noted that pig industry in Nigeria is an important arm of livestock subsector in the overall agricultural sector which derives from the fact that pigs possess high fecundity; high feed to meat conversion efficiency, early maturity, short gestation period, cooking fats and bristle.
Hedegepath (2008).Pig production is widely scattered across the globe. The estimated global pig inventory of over eight hundred and one million in 2002 was a slight increase over the global pig inventory estimate of over seven hundred and eighty two million in (2006). The countries of Asia have the largest inventory of pig in the world, accounting for over 62% of the total global inventory in 2002. The countries of European Union account for nearly 15% of the global inventory followed by North America with approximately 10%. Pigs are produced primarily in regions of the world with available natural resource including arable land, cereal grains and water. (Hedegepath, 2008)
With increasing human population in Nigeria and virtually static agriculture productivity, the animal protein consumption among Nigerians has worsened in the past few years (Okpor, 2009). Many Nigerians feed mainly on carbohydrate, as a result of the inability of an average man to afford the cost of animal protein which is richer in amino acid. The deficiency of animal protein in the diet of so many people is often attributed to the low number of livestock (cattle, pigs, poultry, goats, sheep and their products), and the activities connected with their production which are insufficient.
Ugwu (2006) observed that animal protein apart from its palatability is essential for normal physical and mental development of man, thus its deficiency in the diet exerts adverse effects in terms of reduced human productivity due to abnormal development. He also noted that animal protein energy deficiency causes high incidence of infant mortality, pronounced malnutrition and exposure to disease. Many Nigerians feed on carbohydrate diets which comprises of cereals or starchy food and tuber crops which have relatively low protein. Due to remoteness and inaccessibility, the rural area farmers had evolved a self-sustainable local resource based production system in which pigs are mainly dependent on local vegetable crop residues and kitchen waste (Moanaro et all; 2011). Pigs thus serve as an avenue for additional income and employment that can improve the livelihood in a sustainable manner (Petruset al; 2011). The livestock however, remain one of the fastest growing parts of the agricultural economy driven by income growth and supported by technological and structural advancement. The growth and transformation of the sector offers opportunity for agricultural development, reduction in poverty and food security gain. Pig production among others has high potential to contributing to high economic gain (FAO, 2009).
Pigs have some unique advantages over all other livestock animals which include its ability to multiply extensively, to combat protein deficiency, their fast growth rate attaining market size at 6-9 months, short gestation period of three months, three weeks and three days(114days), high prolificacy and high fecundity which surpasses any other animal species (Ezeibe, 2010). Pigs are very efficient in feed utilization, thus has high feed to meat conversion rate which brings better return to the farmer per unit of input than most other animals. The quality of their meat is tender and more nutritive in protein and B-vitamin than other animals. Pig production has not fully developed in Nigeria compared to ruminants and poultry production (Ogunji and Omoteso, 2011). Agubiade (2011) reveals that the neglect or slow growth of the piggery industry can be attributed to acceptability and management problems. The tendency of some entrepreneurs leaving pig business can be attributed to the educational level of the operators, absence of good breeds, cost of feed, cost of production and access to research and extension services (Onumere, 2008). There is inadequate baseline information regarding pig production in the commercial nerve center of Anambra State and thus, the reason of thisresearch is to bridge the gap in knowledge.
1.2 Problem Statement
Pig production and its products has various economic advantage which ranges from pork serving as a good source of protein to every individual and a viable avenue of revenue to both the nation and the citizens of that country The hides used for making leather bags, bristle used in making brushes etc. Despite this tremendous economic importance of piggery production, the business is faced with several constraints among which are disease outbreak, lack of finance, lack of good breeds, high cost of feed, lack of access to credit facilities, un availability of veterinary health care system poor transportation and religious bias. If these problems are not well addressed, it will lead to hinder the development of piggery production. Consequent upon this, it is pertinent to examine the economics of piggery production in Ihiala Local Government Area. The following research questions guided the study;
- What are the socio-economic characteristics of piggery producers?
- What are the production systems in the area?
- What are the cost and return of piggery production in the area?
- What are the factors affecting piggery production in the area?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the economics of piggery production in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State.
The Specific Objectives of the Study are to:
- describe the socio-economic characteristics of piggery farmers in the study area
- ascertain production systems of piggery farmers in the study area
- ascertain the cost and returns of piggery production in the area;
- determine the factors that affect piggery production in the study area;
- identify the constraints encountered by piggery farmers in the area;
- make recommendations based on the findings
There is no significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of piggery producers and their output
The findings from this research will be useful for farmers in Ihiala Local farmers and consumers within the study area. This research will help farmers within Anambra State to know the various systems of rearing pigs which will assist in increasing the volume of output (meat)consumption and other products for industrial use. This study will also help the consumer in the same area to know the best hygienic place to purchase their meat and other livestock products. This research will also help policy makers, researchers, farm managers, farmers in agriculture to reshape and mould policy making in agriculture through its recommendation.