This section of the study is the introductory part of the chapter one. Under this chapter sub-sections such as; background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study and definition of terms will be discussed.
- Background to the Study
Human effort in organization is indispensable. It constitutes a complex phenomenon to managers of such organization to comprehend. Accordingly, it is believed that every behaviour is a goal directed. Thus, for an organization or individual to engage in any productive venture, it must have underlying fundamental factors including the individual in that direction. Hence the effect of work environment in achieving set target for the organization must be in adequate condition. Therefore, the nature of office concerned with these things that influence workers productivity, which constitute the ‘why’ of people behaviour? Why do people do things? What are these increases in work productivity? These questions can be answered with the understanding of the nature of work environment and how these affect productivity. However, the organizational target can only be achieved if the environment is conducive. Work environment consists of the office buildings, its furniture and layout as well as the physical conditions under which workers operate. It is also concerned with the external factors to the business which the office serves, the industry or other activities within which the business lies, the custom and laws of the community within which they operates. These environmental factors are always changing and the office must react to the changes, but how does the customs and laws reduce workers morale? This question can be answered after investigation. Office and work environment are dynamic, but the most dynamic factors in the office is human factor. Workers today are more educated than before. They are more likely to raise questions about their environment of work since management itself dynamic profession. It adhered and addresses itself to the provision of good environment of work for workers productivity. But what are those increases that enhance productivity? Therefore, answer will be made after investigations. However, poor work environment and bad conditions have posed a great danger to workers health and therefore make them to work with less joy and enthusiasm and work progress is hampered and disrupted. An understanding of the effect of work environment on the productivity of employees cannot be over-emphasized or seen as overstatement in every organization. Experience has shown that workers are directly influenced by the environment they find themselves where their competence will achieve nothing in terms of productivity if the environment is not conducive. This is in line saying in respect of workers in public enterprises today and issues of unproductive nature of workers compounded with the poor nature of the environment. Therefore, because of the adverse effect of work environment on morale of employees, the need for provision of good physical work environment for workers was stated by Mill (1930) after the First World War. During this period, various managements were concerned with the importance of maintaining loyalty and morale through the elimination of pollutants such as temperature, noise and pollution from their environment. This was later spread out to include a wider area of disturbing influences like feeling of insecurity in relation to employment, unfairness on the part of supervision and not being accepted by one’s fellow employees. According to Mills (1983), the need for standard of working condition received legal backing by 1963 law and Act of parliament which made it mandatory for all business organization to provide them minimum standard of interest that will enhance the performance of employees as an objective.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Every organization is set up for a purpose and such purpose which is generally referred to as objective and this cannot be achieved if the environment looks unhealthy. The absence of important work material as a result of non-availability of some necessary office facilities like air condition, rug, good ventilation in some of the department in the company is a common feature. Some office or department looks depressing and un-stimulating. Some of them have no louvers, light, and some with uncompleted roofs. The state of affairs do not compete favourably with other office outside, some office with dirty and scattered environment, most of the department has small floor space with materials tables, chairs, papers, files and other things scattered here and there. Some office were furnished without due regard to the relationship between colour selection and workers morale. Some of these facilities has colour which makes the office to be dark; in some of the department’s work service are wrongly arranged. It is known from workers view point that the work of accounting, typing, etc needs good quality of light because of visual discrimination involved. As a result of non-availability of good work environment, the performance of employees is in a declining state. most department manager in the company pay no attention in accomplishing the departmental set objectives, as to be recognized and promoted at the expense of workers or employees welfare. These acts of negligence by the managers have gone a long way to reduce workers performance or morale. The state of affairs in the company has resulted to negative attitude by the employees which is inimical to the progress and accomplishment of the company’s set objective.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate and identify the effect of work environment on employees’ performance in Nestle Nigerial Plc. The specific objectives are as follows;
- To ascertain whether inadequacy of the various conditional factors can affect productivity of employee.
- To ascertain whether the unconducive nature of work environment lead to low productivity, absenteeism and lateness among employees.
- To investigate the level of productivity of workers under healthy environment in Nestle Nigeria Plc.
- To examine the extent at which good working environment increases employees morale in Nestle Nigeria Plc.
1.4 Research Questions
In this study, the following questions will be critically examined in order to provide solution to the research problem;
- Does inadequacy of the various conditional factors affects productivity of employee?
- Does the nature of work environment lead to low productivity, absenteeism and lateness among employees?
- Does work environment have any effect on employees performance in Nestle Nigeria Plc?
- Does good working environment increases employees morale in Nestle Nigeria Plc?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: The nature of work environment has no positive effect on workers’ productivity in Nestle Nigeria Plc
Ha1: The nature of work environment has positive effect on workers’ productivity in Nestle Nigeria Plc
Ho2: Conducive environment has no positive effect on employees’ performance in Nestle Nigeria Plc
Ha2: Conducive environment has positive effect on employees’ performance in Nestle Nigeria Plc
Ho3: Good working environment does not increase employees’ morale in Nestle Nigeria Plc
Ha3: Good working environment does not increases employees’ morale in Nestle Nigeria Plc
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work centers on the employees in Nestle Nigeria Plc to investigate the efficacies of work environment on employees’ performance. The research work tends to ascertain the effect of work environment on the productivity of workers and will focus little on the administrative areas but focus more on the casual workers (workers at the loading-bay, warehouse, workshop, and the factory floor).
1.7 Significance of the Study
Many people in an organization try to attain a higher level of safety or job security in their place of work. And this study when completed should be of immense help to different organization and individual. It will help to highlight the effect of work environment on the productivity of employees in Nestle Nigeria Plc, so that the management will look into the problems with a view to improving on its working environment.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
A general setback to most research works and including this study are: Financial constraints, time constraint and limited access to information hindered the researcher to carry out the research deeply but effort was made to ensure the objective of this research was achieved.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Efficiency: it simply means the extent to which time is well used for the intended task.
Environment: the surroundings in which a person, animals or plant lives.
Job Security: this is the possibility that an individual will keep his or her job.
Morale: is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose.
Productivity: is a measure of the efficiency of production i.e the measure of the rate at which products are being produced.
Prospective: means an event that is likely or expected to happen in the future.
1.10 Historical Background of the Case Unit
History of Nestle Nigeria Plc
Nestle Foods was started by Henri Nestle in the mid eighteenth century, in his bid to find an alternative to breast milk for babies whose mothers could not nurse in order to reduce infant mortality. Consequently Nestle’s first customer was a premature infant who could tolerate neither his mother’s milk nor any of the conventional substitutes and had being given up for lost by doctors. The value of the product was recognized after it saved the child’s life. Henri Nestle showed an early understanding of the power of branding as he adopted his very own coat of arms as the company’s logo and refused to allow Nestle in various countries to have different logo. The coat of arms reflected his name; which mean little nest in his dialect as it consisted of a bird’s nest with a bird and her little chicks. The company expanded its product base very quickly, with the collaboration of Daniel Peter whose company figure out the mix of milk with cocoa powder to make milk chocolate. They also merged with Henri Maggi whose company created powdered soup and bouillon cubes, sauces and flavouring using legumes. The early part of the eighteenth century saw the expansion of Nestle into various countries as exports to countries such as Singapore, Honk Kong, and Bombay. The company also began full scale operations in Australia. However, this soon became a difficult period for Nestle as a result of scarcity and rising prices of raw materials, worldwide post war economic recession, and deteriorating exchange rate. This eventually led to a change in the company’s structure as factories were established in developing countries. This has laid the foundation for the establishment of Nestle Nigeria in 1961. It started operations in Nigeria as a simple trading organization but today is one of the leading food manufacturing companies. It was incorporated as a private company in Nigeria as food specialties Nigeria Ltd. The company’s food segment includes the production and sales of Maggi, Cerelac, Nutrend, Nan, Lactogen, and Golden Morn while its beverages segement includes the production and the sales of Milo, Milo reeady to drink, Chocomilo, Nido, Nescafe and Nestle Pure life. Nestle manufactures and markets a range of brands. Infant formula, family cereals, infant cereals, bevereages drink, bouillon, coffee and table water.