1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In the era of Globalization, market economy, hyper competition and rapid changing environment, the success of an organization depends on the employees’ performance. Employees’ performance is an essential requirement if an organization is to maintain its efforts towards the realization of predesigned goals. Organizations have to provide various benefits to ensure employees welfare is taken care off. In fact in this age and era it is almost impossible to operate an organisation without offering a basic set of benefits for employees’ welfare. Organizations should understand that a healthy and stress free worker is a major asset to the organization and should therefore provide welfare services and programmes.
Welfare is concerned with the total wellbeing of employees both at work and at home. Armstrong (2014) states that employee welfare programs rest mainly on the abstract ground of social responsibility on organisations for those who work for them. Organizations need highly performing employees in order to meet their goals to deliver the products and services they specialize in and hence achieve competitive advantage. According to Gayle & Brock (2014) Organizations provide welfare facilities to their employees to keep their motivation levels high. The employee welfare programs can be classified into two categories viz. statutory and non-statutory welfare schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing employee health and safety. These include provisions provided in industrial acts like Factories Act, Dock Workers Act (safety, health and welfare), and Mines Act. The non-statutory schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry. The very logic behind providing welfare schemes is to increase a healthy loyal and the productivity of organization, create efficient, satisfied labour force for the organization promote healthy organizational relations thereby maintaining industrial peace.
Job performance has over the years being tied to the amount of input of the work force within an organization. This workforce input is greatly determined by the amount of pressure put in by the management of such organizations, whether they choose to apply the principles of motivation in administrating such organizations or the scientific theory of administration has a great impact to play in the amount of service delivery gotten (Matthew et al, 2005).
Motivation is important in the organization to boost morale among employees in order to achieve their goals. Motivated employees help the organization to become more successful because motivated employees are consistently looking forward to improve their work performance (Ali & Ahmed, 2009). The outcome from a motivated employee will produce high level of productivity since they are enjoying their work. Therefore, they feel satisfied in the workplace which resulted in lower absenteeism and reducing turnover rate. It is not an easy task especially for the managers to retain highly motivated employees within the organization as they are the valuable assets of the organization to achieve success in the future (Kreisman, 2002). Employees are the human capital to the organizations, and performance of them within an organization which can lead to organizational prosperity or failure.
The job performance of this employees are tied to motivation therefore and in turn determines the extent of service delivery or say attainment of set organizational goals. Job performance refers to how well someone performs at his or her work. Job performance has been defined as work performance in terms of quality and quality expected from each employee (Khan et al., 2009).
Meanwhile, the Anambra State Local Government Service Commission presently under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sir. Peter Egenti is saddled with overseeing the supervision, training, appointments and promotions, coordination, development and promotion of government policies at the 21 Local Governments in Anambra State. The commission has however since its inauguration in 2014 by the Willie Obiano administration has as its top agenda the reorientation, reorganization sanitization, monitoring and welfare of staff, the Chairman of the service in his acceptance speech had in 2014 reiterated during his speech on workers that a de-motivated and unsatisfied staff would not be able to function maximally hence his commitment to improving workers welfare.
With the present global economic trend, most employers of labor have realized the fact that for their organizations to compete favorably, the performance of their employees goes a long way in determining the success of the organization. On the other hand, performance of employees in any organization is vital, not only for the growth of the organization, but also for the growth of individual employees.
Employees are now in constant quest to find out ways through which they can rightly motivate their employees in order to get higher performance and in turn improved service delivery hence this study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The current Nigeria economic situation is such that cannot allow for any excuses amongst top management of relevant revenue generating agencies of government parastatals. In fact, even the non generating agencies are expected to function maximally as such would help in bringing the nation’s economy around. Therefore, management is saddled with the task of finding out how best to draw performance and an improved one at that for quality service delivery.
Employee welfare is a dynamic concept as new welfare measures are added to the existing ones along with social changes. The modern concept of employee welfare entails all those activities of the employers, which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages and salaries. Welfare facilities are essential for the health of the organisation since they bear a close connection with the productivities of the labour force. Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote motivation, healthy organizational relations thereby maintaining industrial peace and retain the employees for longer duration.
There are arguments against the provision of welfare programs. Human Resource fraternity have spent many years trying to shake off its association with what it and others like to think of as at best peripheral and at worst redundant welfare activities. Welfare is provided by the state services, why industrial, commercial or public sector organizations should duplicate what is already there? However scholar like Herzberg (1959) believes those welfare schemes are hygiene factors and as a result does not motivate the workers to perform. Armstrong (2014) states that employee welfare program rests mainly on the abstract ground of social responsibility on organizations for those who work for them. However all employers have to provide welfare facilities within the precincts of the organization as they form part of the working conditions. Many organizations are increasingly providing employee welfare depending on its priorities gives varies degrees of importance to employee welfare.
Welfare programs in the Anambra State Local Government Commission is largely affected by poor leadership, corruption, lack of will, poor working environment and facilities, safety challenges, poor retirement benefits plan amongst others.
However, the State government under Willie Obiano has consistently tried in ensuring workers salary are promptly paid, the national minimum wage enforced at all corners, workers have access to loan for farm thus boosting their work morale and improving efficiency purposes but has failed in other aspects such as identified above.
This study therefore seeks to find out the extent of effect employee welfare schemes have on the motivation of workers in Anambra State Local Government Service Commission.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to analyze the effects of welfare scheme on the motivation of workers in Anambra State Local Government Service Commission. The sub-objectives of the study are:
- To identify a good welfare scheme.
- To examine the relationship between welfare scheme and motivation of workers in Anambra State Local Government Service.
- To identify ways through which welfare scheme can be made better in Anambra State Local Government Service.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- In what ways can a good welfare scheme be identified?
- What are the relationships between welfare scheme and motivation of workers in Anambra State Local Government Service?
- In what ways can welfare scheme be made better in Anambra State Local Government Service?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
For the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses will be tested.
- H0: A good welfare scheme should include prompt payment of salary, good health and housing schemes, good retirement package etc.
H1: A good welfare scheme should not include prompt payment of salary, good health and housing schemes, good retirement package etc.
- H0: There is a significant relationship between welfare scheme and motivation of workers in Anambra State Local Government Service.
HI: There is no significant relationship between welfare scheme and motivation of workers in Anambra State Local Government Service.
- H0: The Anambra State Local Government Service welfare scheme can be made better by ensuring prompt ad fair salary payment, provision of health and housing security, reviewing of existing workers settlements and entitlements in the state, respect of labor unions etc.
HI: The Anambra State Local Government Service welfare scheme cannot be made better by ensuring prompt ad fair salary payment, provision of health and housing security, reviewing of existing workers settlements and entitlements in the state, respect of labor unions etc. .
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will have two basic significance; theoretically and practically.
Practically, the findings of the study will be important to the management of Anambra State Local Government Service Commission because it will provide insights about employee welfare programs and employee performance at the organization to ensure high organization productivity and the attainment of organizational objectives. Other state agencies will be able to implement the research recommendations to improve employee commitment and hence reap maximum benefits from their employees’ performance. The government agencies and other organizations will make use of this study, as it provides knowledge useful in formulation of policy and a regulatory framework on human resource management and in particular, welfare programs for better organizational performance and individual employees’ wellbeing.
Theoretically, researchers and scholars can use this information to add to their understanding employee welfare programs practices in Nigeria and beyond. The study will provide foundation and material for further related research.
1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on finding out how motivation can improve job performers and subsequently service delivery in the Anambra State Local Government Service Commission with specific attention to the Willie Obiano administration from 2013 to 2016. This is to enable the researcher have a closer focus on the current welfare challenges within the State Local Government service. The researcher will also focus mainly on workers salary, security at work place, rights protection, health benefits, and housing plans among others. The study therefore does not cover other service commissions in the state.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
During the course of this research, there were some visible and invisible problems encountered in the areas of time, funding and data collection.
Time was a problem as the time for the study was grossly inadequate. The researcher has to share the little available time between the study and classroom work.
The funds needed to facilitate the field work and research for this study was scarcely available due to the economic recession in the country. Government bureaucracy also forestalled and delayed gathering of information from the respondents for this research work. This problems where however overcome with a lot of persistence and endurance.
Time was judiciously managed and funds were solicited for from relatives and friends who offered the little they could. This funds was then used prudently by the researcher who also took time to comfort and explain to the respondents why their responses where necessary as well as assured them of their anonymity.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Effect: The state of being operative or functional; operation or execution; accomplishment or fulfillment: to bring a plan into effect.
Motivation: Motivation is a procedure that initiates through a physiological or psychological want that stimulates a performance that is intended at an objective. It is the concluding product of interface among personality behavior and organizational distinctiveness (IRCO). It symbolizes those psychological procedures that foundations the stimulation, route, and determination of deliberate actions that are target oriented (Farhad et al, 2011).
Job Performance: Public enterprise is an organization which is owned, managed and controlled by the government. It is financed and operated by the government to render one service or the other to the public. It provides goods and services to the public at reasonable prices. It is guided by service motive but it can earn nominal profit.
Service Delivery: This is the extent to which organization staff, through the use of certain resources, fulfils their job objectives without depleting production resources and with a high rate of efficiency and effectiveness.
Welfare Scheme: Employee welfare programs rest mainly on the abstract ground of social responsibility on organisations for those who work for them.
Employee: Is any person who enters into a contract of employment with another in returns for wages, salaries or other valuable considerations.
Welfare: this is an organized efforts to ensure the basic well being of people in need. It is also a wide variety of services provided by companies for employee and in some cases for members of employee’s families. These word shall be used often and interchangeably with benefits, giving benefits, employee benefits and supplementary compensations.