Background of study

HIV and AIDS Human Immuno Deficiency virus and Acquired Immuno deficiency syndrome respectively is one of the most devastating worldwide public health problem in recent history. The United States Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in 2006, 942,000 people in the United States had been diagnosed with Aids since the disease was identified in 1981. (the free

Ijezie, (2012) stated that HIV and AIDS are called pandemic instead of epidemic because no country has escaped. It is not known where it started. It poses a great danger to the full realization of the potentials of all humankind. It affects our religious, social, cultural, economic and political development and a threat to global peace, security and order.

World Health Organization, (WHO) (2016).stated that the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system destroying or impairing their function. Infection with the virus results to progressive deterioration of the immune system, leading to “Immune deficiency”. The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfill its roles of fighting infection and diseases. Infection associated with severe immune deficiency is known as “opportunistic infection”, because they take advantage of weekend immune system. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a term which applies to the most advanced stage of HIV infection.

Christian, (2017). stated thus, AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus).The diseases i.e HIV alters the immune system making people more vulnerable to infection and diseases. This susceptibility worsens as the syndrome progresses. HIV is found throughout all the tissue of body fluid (semen, vaginal fluid, blood and breast milk) of an effected person.

Mayo foundation, (2015, july2). said that Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life threaten condition caused by the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) by damaging the immune system. HIV interferes with body’s ability to fight the organism and cause diseases.HIV is a sexually transmitted infection. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, child birth or breast feeding without medication. It may take years before HIV weakens the immune system to the point that you have AIDS.

According to estimates by WHO and UNAIDS, (2016). 36. 7 million people were living with HIV globally at the end of 2015. That same year, some 2.1 million people become newly infected and 1.1 million died of HIV-related causes. HIV and AIDS is a matter of concern because the number of cases has increase dramatically over the last years. Nursing students need to have appropriate knowledge and the correct attitude about HIV and AIDS because they are the future health care professionals; therefore, they will play a key role in prevention of the spread and care of people with AIDS.

Statement of Problem

During my clinical experience in the ward (Holy Rosary Hospital Emekuku) I observed that student nurses were usually more willing to care for patients who were not diagnose with AIDS. Particularly, student having negative attitude towards care of AIDS patients, were worried about putting their family members and other relations at risk. I also observed that the negative attitude of students toward HIV and AIDS patients were because of the little knowledge they had about HIV and AIDS.

All these aroused my interest into wishing to carry out a study on the knowledge and attitude of student’s nurses towards HIV and AIDS patients.


Research Questions

  1. Do student nurses get information about HIV and AIDS from the right sources?
  2. Do student nurses feel comfortable taking care of HIV and AIDS positive patients?
  3. What are the causes of discrimination and isolation associated with HIV and AIDS patients among student nurses?
  4. What type of sexual behaviour is healthy to practice?

Objectives of the Study

  1. To identify the sources of information that nursing students access in relation to HIV and AIDS.
  2. To ascertain the willingness of students to care for people with HIV and AIDS.
  3. To explore the factors associated with Knowledge and Attitudes about HIV and AIDS among nursing students of Holy Rosary Hospital Emekuku.
  4. To probe nursing students sexual risk behaviour.

Significance of Study

The significance of the study includes the following:

  1. It will help the researcher to ascertain the sources of information nursing students access for HIV and AIDS.
  2. The researcher will be able to know the willingness of student nurses in caring for HIV and AIDS patients.
  3. Findings obtained from this study will assist in educating the student’s nurses on those behaviors that stimulate a positive coping of people living with HIV and AIDS.
  4. To help other researchers to fill the gap that exists in the study.

Scope of study

This study is delimited to Knowledge and Attitude of student nurses of Holy Rosary hospital Emekuku towards people living with HIV and AIDS.

Operational Definitions

Knowledge: Information or intelligence about HIV and AIDS among student nurses

Attitude: Disposition or state of mind of students nurses towards people living with HIV and IDS

Student nurses: In this study stands for students who are still undergoing training in order to get certificate as a registered nurse.

Acquired: “To get from” Aids is acquired or got from other people who are already infected

Immuno: “protected” or “defended” against a disease.

Deficiency: means “not enough” with Aids the body has not enough defense against diseases.

Syndrome: A group of different signs of diseases.

Human: It survives or develops only in human beings, not in animals or insects.

Immuno-deficiency: It causes a reduction in the body’s immune system.

Virus: A virus is a tiny germ that can only be seen with a powerful microscope.