This is a research work carried out to evaluate the impact of printing advertisement on products in Nigeria with particular reference to Emmasco Arts & Prints, Ojo, Lagos. Data for the research were collected through primary.

The collected data were analyzed in tables and simple percentages, while the hypotheses were tested using the chi square technique.

Given three hypotheses as stated in chapter one, these hypotheses were tested critically in chapter four to reveal the authenticity of responses by the respondents to the research questions.

In the final analysis, attempts were made to bring to summary the tested research hypotheses.


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Table of Contents




1.1       Background of the study

Printing Advertising has become a powerful communication tool in passing message about the products and services to both customers and potential customers. When there is adequate awareness through advertising, high patronage will be achieved, which will result to an increase in sales volume, productivity and profit level of the organizations.

However, poor product communication to the final consumers could give competitors an edge in term of loyalty to brands, sales volume and high market share. Consequence of this has been the major setbacks for matured industries.

Contemporary strategic marketing practice calls for more than developing a good product or service, pricing it adequately, and making it available totarget customers or clients. Organizations should also promote their products and services to present and potential customers and clients. Udel (1968) identified marketing promotions as the most important facet of marketing strategy leading to effectiveness. Printing Advertising, an aspect of promotional strategy, has both an informative and persuasive role, and in this respect can alter customers’/clients’ perceptions of a product or service. As Pickering (1976) suggests, advertising can increase brand loyalty, thereby decreasing price elasticity through increased differentiation. Bain (1956) posits that advertising can have a cumulative and long lasting effect on organisational and strategic performance.

Akanbi and Adeyeye (2011) believe that advertising campaign cannot solely be responsible for recorded increase in sales. Other unrecognizable factors like higher income for potential customers, reduced problems of competitors, improved customer relation of distributors and retailers and other unnoticeable factors apart from the campaign may be responsible for the company’s improved sales (Akanbi and Adeyeye, 2011). Morden (1991) believes that advertising gives the knowledge about the product and create the idea in mind about it. Busari (2002) as cited in Adekoya (2011) says that advertisements can also be seen on the seats of grocery carts, on the wall of airport walkways, on the sides of buses, airplane and train. Advertisements are usually placed anywhere an audience can easily and/or frequently access visual and /or video. Akanbi and Adeyeye, (2011) discover that advertising as a subset of promotion mix has a significant effect on sales turnover. Adekoya (2011) finds that advertising influence consumer buying behavior, which means that it helps to increase sales turnover. It is on this premise that this research work wishes to examine the impact of printing advertising on a product in Nigeria with special reference to Emmasco Arts & Print Company, Ojo, Lagos.

1.2       Statement of problem

Printing Advertisement is costly; often its effects are uncertain, and sometimes it takes a while before it makes any impact on consumers’ buying behavior. It is for these reasons that many companies think it appropriate, occasionally to reduce expenditures on printing advertising or to entirely eliminate it. On the other hand, some companies sometimes consider it unnecessary to advertise when their brands are already enjoying great success without printing advertisement. Such behavior implicitly fails to consider the fact that advertising is not just a current expense or mere exercise but an investment.

Often, when asked the non-price reason behind their choice for a particular brand of product over another, most consumers will readily shout “Quality”. However, one would accept this answer with a lot of ambivalence, given the fact that it is only on rare occasions that consumers would have what it takes to make an objective quality differentiation among alternative product brands. This category of consumers is highly informed and enlightened and their percentage is quite negligible in Nigeria.

In the regulated consumer products industry in Nigeria, it may be expected that the issue of

“better quality” should not arise. This is against the backdrop that the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) has stipulated and is seriously enforcing both production and marketing standards for all producers of consumer products thereby making every brand of consumer products of equal purity and quality, yet most consumers of these products would readily pay a premium price or are price insensitive when it comes to the purchase of a particular brand. This gets one wondering, could it be that consumers in making choice are merely responding to the outcome of their perception which is a function of such attributes like brand name, mark, package, company-of-make etc. A point to note is the fact that most producers strongly believe that advertising also, has a very high influence on consumer’s choice (Ogbuji, 2008).

However, given the fact that many elements contribute to the buying decision of the consumers, one is not sure if these elements play equal role in influencing choice or if some play a higher role than others. This is the crux of the problem of this study. The study therefore, seeks to establish how printing advertisement has been used by companies as a marketing tool, its impact on the performance of companies and suggest how it can be effectively used on a product in Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the study

This research is based on the drive to know the impact of printing advertisement on a product in Nigeria and how this print media can keep the company going in business. Other specific objectives include:

  1. To assess the extent to which an advertising programme reflects on the overall

performance of company’s products.

  1. To identify the major merits and demerits of advertising
  • To determine if advertisement increases consumer’s preference of a particular product

to others

  1. To determine the role of advertisement in marketing of consumer goods

1.4      Research Questions

This research intends to consider the following questions:

  1. Does printing advertisement have an impact on company’s products? ii. To what extent does printing advertisement affect the overall performance of

company’s products?

iii.    Is printing advertisement an effective tool in marketing of products?

1.5       Research Hypothesis

  1. Ho: Printing advertisement does not have an impact on company’s products

Hi: Printing advertisement has an impact on company’s products

  1. Ho: Printing advertisement does not affect the overall performance of company’s


Hi: Printing advertisement affects the overall performance of company’s products iii.          Ho: Printing advertisement is not an effective tool in marketing of products Hi: Printing advertisement is not an effective tool in marketing of products

1.6       Scope of the study

This study looks at the impact of printing advertisement on a product in Nigeria. The study covered advertising as the independent variable and Printing Advertisement performance as the dependent variable.

1.7      Significance of the study

An evaluation of the effectiveness of printing advertisement on the marketing of consumer products is of importance to any organization engaged in the production/marketing of consumer products since it determines to a great extent the organization’s efficiency through increased sales.

The findings of this research will reveal the importance of advertising and is hoped to enhance better quality advertising programmes by companies involved in the business of marketing consumer products.

Finally, the study will be significant to students and researchers since it will enlarge the existing literatures on the areas of effective advertising and sales.

1.8       Limitation of the study

This research study was constrained by several factors and these include inadequate finance, insufficient time, inadequate data and release of information. These factors may have somehow limited the outcome of this research work

1.9      Definition of key terms

Advertising: According to Arens (2004:7), advertising is the structured and composed nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods, services or ideas) by identified sponsors through various media

Advertising Agencies: These are usually independent business organizations comprised of creative and business personnel, who develop, prepare and place adverts for organizations so as to attract and influence consumers’ behaviour towards a product or service.

Printing Media: Is a way of referring to newspapers and magazines

Consumer: This is the person(s) to which the advertisement and products/services are directed. Here they are also known as buyers of a company’s product.

Printing: is the activity or business of producing writing or images on paper or other material with a machine.

Outdoor Media: These cover the use of billboards, sign posts, posters, handbills, etc. in communicating the advertising message to the consumers.

Product: This can represent anything a consumer acquires or might acquire to meet a perceived need. The need not necessarily need to be satisfactory. Some product might not satisfy their needs.