This study investigated “influence of poor remuneration on the productivity of teachers in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State. Three (3) research questions guided the study. The study was based on two (2) theories. Descriptive survey research design was adopted while purposive sampling technique and a sample size of sixty seven (67) respondents was used. In collecting relevant data, a well structured questionnaire was used. Arithmetic mean () was used to analyze the data so collected, and the decision rule was base on the derived theoretical mean (3.0). Thus items which have calculated mean () equal to (=) or greater than (>) the theoretical mean (3.0), were accepted and otherwise rejected. The result revealed that the arithmetic mean of all the research questions was all greater than their theoretical mean of 3.0. The statistical software known as SPSS version 20.0 was used, and the results revealed the following; -Working conditions of the teachers have influence on students’ performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State; -Professional development of the teachers have influence on students’ performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State; -Teachers’ remuneration has influence on students’ performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State. It was recommended that Schools’ board of governors and teachers’ service commission should improve the intrinsic motivation factor of teachers, by recognizing the teachers for their achievement by writing commendation and recommendation letter to them, as inclusion in decision making that affect them.
Background of the Study
The teaching profession is one of the least respected professions in Nigeria today as it is the case in most developing countries of the world. Teachers from all ramifications are the builder of a nation hence they educate the youth that will later sustain the growth or the nation. This important role which the teachers play is not adequately compensated. If not for recently when the Federal Government had introduced some fringe benefits or remunerations such as the new salary structure called “elongated salary”, housing and transport, utility. Rent and leave allowances for all workers in the country, teachers would have remained very poor. These remunerations are added incentives to motivate and encourage teachers to put in their best for a better attitude to work, which will lead to high productivity and efficiency. Unfortunately, these remunerations are not so regularly paid to teachers as their counterparts in other employments. This usually leads to incessant strikes in the school system.
According toMbipom (2000), both staff and students have lost much time due to strikes for better conditions of service. Accordingly, as long as the hydra headed examination malpractice is around nobody seems to mind. The resultant effects are found in the half-baked and ill-equipped products turned out from the school system annually.
But the questions are; who is to blame? The teacher who does not want to teach or perform his job as at when due? The students who are ready to study but are deprived? The parents who despite poor finances manage to put in their best by paying in their children school fees? Or, the government, who has introduced the remunerations but is yet to implement it regularly to the teachers? Apparently, there are more to these questions than in the asking hence the essence of this paper is to represent in its logical perspective, the effect of remunerations on the attitude of teachers vis-a-vis the lingering crises in our educational system.
The current trend in our educational system is poor attitude to work of teachers, as it is evident in the strikes and increasing rates of failures, in public examinations such as the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (SSCE), the Polytechnics, Colleges of Education Entrance Examinations, and the University Matriculation Examinations (UME).
This undesirable trend of events has given educationists, policy makers, parents, guardians and even school administrator’s greater cause for concern. In an attempt to investigate the effect of this remuneration on teachers’ attitude to work in schools most researchers have attributed the negative attitude of teachers to the poor implementation of basic incentives and lack of government: commitment to educational matters.
Of great importance as the above factors may seem to be, it is worthy to note that the most predominant factor affecting teachers productivity and their altitude to work today in our school is the inability of government to evolve an enduring remuneration and motivational strategy that will create a conducive atmosphere which will encourage teachers to be committed to work (Mbipom; 2000).
The best way to improve the quality of instruction would be to lower barriers to becoming a teacher, such as certification, and to link compensation and career advancement more closely with teacher’s ability to raise student performance. It suffices to say that proper remuneration of teachers is associated with higher performance and poor remuneration of teachers is the reason for poor performance of students in Imo state secondary institutions (It is should be noted that the good performance of some of the students in WAEC results were not unconnected to examination malpractice). Therefore teacher’s remuneration is the core for effective performance in schools, implying that the government should improve on teacher’s remuneration in order to improve performance of Imo state secondary institutions. Robbins (2003) concludes that, managers and administrators in institutions should always appreciate, evaluate positively and allocate rewards and incentives more appropriately to their staff for maximum performance. This shows that there is a clear link between the academic staff performance and remuneration.
Statement of the Problem
The productivity of teachers in Imo State has been poor, which the L.G.A., is not left out especially since the Imo State Government started the terrifying 70% monthly basic salary, Teachers seldom go to work and even when they attend work, they go to classes unprepared. They do not think about promotion any longer since basic salary is not being paid completely. The Government owned primary and secondary schools in Imo State is really suffering as the pupils and students are approximately empty academically. Teachers now have interest in their personal businesses, and even do their respective businesses during school hours, thereby making the students empty academically. No more research by the teachers as they no longer derive joy in what should have been their flair.
Purpose of the Study
This research investigated the influence of poor remuneration on the productivity of teachers in MbaitoluL.G.A. The specific objectives of this research are:
- To establish whether working conditions of the teachers have any influence on students’ performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State
- To examine whether professional development of the teachers has any influence on students’ performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State.
- To establish whether teachers’ remuneration has any influence on students’ performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State
Significance of the Study
The imperativeness of this study cannot be underrated. The study will be of high significance in that it will help the following categories of people in the following ways:
- The students: This study will serve as an eye opener to the students in knowing the negative effects/consequences of poor remuneration of teachers as it affects those of them in Government own schools. Hence, they should think of an alternative means of having extra studies outside the ones being taught in the school.
- The teachers: This research study will serve as information to other teachers whose poor remuneration do not affect, as they will know the effect on students and thereby say “NO” to it should they have their own school tomorrow.
- Education Authorities: The teachers, the authorities will benefit immensely from this study as it will help keep them informed on the recent techniques to be adopted in making the teachers motivated so as to have trusted and competent students and as well teachers.
- The Government: Our government would not be left out in the list of the beneficiaries of this study. The research work will help the government to see reasons why trained and qualified teachers should be recruited into our secondary schools and adequately motivated, so as to yield positive result.
- The society / parents: This study will in no small measure assist parents and the society at large in knowing what their children and wards do in school and thus, see ways of assisting them to learn and concentrate more on their studies. They should think of a way to remove their children in such schools whose teachers are not motivated.
It is of great importance to note that at the completion of this research study various secondary schools, communities, towns, states and Nigeria in general will find the result of this research study to be beneficial to great extent. It would play an essential role in the standard of education and in the task of economic growth and development. The significance of this study is to reveal the depth into which poor remuneration has plunged in our secondary schools, most especially in Mbaitolu Local Government Area, Imo State. It is also to discover the forms, causes, consequences and permanent solution to the problem.
The following research questions shall be considered in this study.
- To what extent does teachers’ working condition influence students’ performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State?
- To what extent does teachers’ professional development influence student performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State?
- To what extent has teacher’s remuneration influence student’s performance in public secondary schools in MbaitoluL.G.A. of Imo State?
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