The impact of trade unionism on the management policy implementation in Nigeria. a case of Anambra state civil service is of interest both to management, government and workers alike, workers needs to be organized and protected in order to speak out with one voice. The researcher also highlight the contribution of trade union on workers performance by determine how management policies are being implemented and the union achieved their objective through workers performance . While the study used some researcher questions, give research hypothesis, both primary and secondary data were collected. From the findings, the researcher revealed that participated decision making assist trade union and management, these gives workers a better sense of belonging in the organisation because majority of workers expressed satisfaction with their current working conditions and management policies. This enabled them perform their jobs better. The text of hypothesis revealed that trade union has made an effort to improving the workers performance. Since trade union improves these, they should avoid the path of confrontation but continued with dialogue through collective bargaining.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Trade union means any combination of workers or employers, whether temporary or permanent the purpose of which is to regulate the terms and conditions of employment of workers1. According to Zulpilip (1992) trade union as a movement is no longer a mere vehicle to unite workers and champion their rights only. Trade Unionism has been an indispensable factor in ensuring and guaranteeing stability and industrial harmony between the employer and labour. Trade Unions played pivotal roles in ensuring the free flow of goods and services to the Nigerian public which keep the Nigerian economy afloat. The Nigeria economy is stable largely owing to the activities of trade unions labouring assiduously to strike a balance between its interest and that of management. Jonathan (2013) on a Labour Day rally, in Usman (2013) emphatically pointed out that: The Nigerian worker is not only an important part of our (the nation’s) history but the pivot of past, our present and our future… Historically, development of Nigeria as a nation is closely linked to the history of trade union movement. Labour and Management are two bearers of great social interests.
It is well known that trade unionism all over the world emerged for improving the economic, living and working conditions of workers. Workers through their union representatives seek to obtain an equitable share in the profits made by the employer in order to improve their working and living standards out of the wealth they help generate.3 The above position has not been different in Nigeria. The primary objective of trade unionism had been an agitation to improve the lot of the labour force through improved conditions and terms of service from the employer. Trade unionism was basically an agitation which was meant to serve as a platform for dialogue with the employer on generally employee welfare.
Trade unionism and industrial disharmony in recent times have resulted to low output production lose of lives and properties in the country. It is thus a worth wile exercise to determine the various ways in which trade unions may influence the implementation of the management policies of an organization, and possibly suggest ways of harmonizing management policies with workers objectives. Trade union is defined as any combination of workers or employers, whether temporary or permanent, the purpose of which is to regulate the terms and conditions of employment of workers”. Howe, (2005) said that trade union can be regarded as any group of workers who combine together, even for brief periods, to secures something from an employer”. The trade union and labour relations (consolidation) act (1993) states that a trade union is an organisation (whether permanent or temporary consisting wholly or mainly of workers of one or more descriptions whose principal purpose includes the regulation of relations between workers of that description and employers or employers associations. The expression of trade union according to section 1 of the trade Union Act of 2005. Defined a trade union as any combinations of workers or employers, whether temporary or permanent, the purpose of which is to regulate the terms and conditions of employment of workers in questions or not, apart from this act, be lawful combination by any reason of its purpose being In provision of benefit for its members.
The role of trade unionism in Nigeria today cannot be overemphasized. It’s an indispensable element in balancing conflicting and sometimesreasonable and responsible. Government that desires to sincerely change and bring about positive transformation to the lives and well being of its citizenry through a robust and vibrant economy can only achieve such objective by creating a conducive environment for dialogue with trade unions who constitute a majority of workers employed in all the sectors of the Nigerian economy. Activism by trade unions had been responsible for uplifting the standard of living and general well being of the Nigerian worker and also safeguarding and protecting the rights and interest of ordinary Nigerians from harsh and unpopular policies made by successive Nigerian Governments.
Trade Unions serve as a mirror for reflecting the opinions of Nigerians on various issues of national interest. Activism of trade unionism has awakened the thoughts of Nigerian citizens in various ways and literally forced the government being the largest employer of labour to imbibe civic and democratic culture in dealing with Nigerians.
In recent times, there is a paradigm shift from the traditional objectives of trade unionism. Trade unionism in this past two decades has expended its roles by delving into the realm of political activism. The writer submits that this paradigm shift is very legal because the constitution gives individuals the right to belong to any trade union for the protection of their “INTEREST‟. It is submitted that interest can either be economic, social or political. This necessarily implies that when workers from trade unions n order to promote their political interest would be legal and constitutional. The trade Union Act has narrowly construed the role of trade unions to advancement of economic interest only. The category of interests in the constitution seems to be wider in scope therefore; this provision will provide a legal haven for trade unions to diversify their purpose and objectives. The provision of the constitution that guarantees freedom of assembly and association for the protection of a person’s interest has laid the legal backing and foundation by which trade unionism is able to expand its roles in the society. Government makes policies some of which have far reaching consequences in the society like fuel likes. In such cases, engaging in political activism through calling mass action exemplified by political/general strikes is one of only way by which such negative policies are reversed totally or at least partially. The expanded role of trade unionism which is basically centered on political activism is the most effective way by which the protection of a person’s“interest” envisaged in Section 40 of the constitution can be observed.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This topic as it concerns the employer/employee relationship to the effect of the organizational management have some numerous problems to be tackled upon as to determine the trade disputes and industrial disharmony in recent times as it has resulted to loose of lives and properties in the country.
- To identify a numerous goods worth billions of naira and time that would have been utilized as output production where wasted. Therefore, it is a worth while exercise to determine the various ways in which trade union may influence the management policies implementation of an organization thereby find out possible suggesting ways to harmonize management policies implementation their various trade unions.
- To find out how the management policies implementation of Anambra state civil service can be affected by the trade union in the organization.
- To determine the reaction of trade union based on the attitudes opinions and other factors that necessitate the organizational non improvement.
- Finally to identify how the management policies could be implemented to match with the objectives of the organization in general.
And those objective include; to find out the influence of trade unionism on management policy implementation, to know the various ways through which trade unions use to influence the management policies implementation in Anambra state civil service, to find out the impact of trade unionism on management policy implementation in Anambra state civil service.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
- To know the various ways through trade unions use to influence the management policies implementation in Anambra state civil service.
- To find out the impact of trade unionism on management policy implementation in Anambra state civil service.
- To identify the various methods/weapons used by trade unions in fighting unhealthy Management policies in Nigeria particularly in Anambra State Civil Service.
- To determine the various strategies which the employers should adopt to ensure smooth continuity of both the organization and the workers employment position.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the various ways which trade unions use to influence the management policies implementation in Anambra state civil service?
- What impact do trade unionism have on management policy implementation in Anambra state civil service?
- What are the various methods/weapons used by trade unions in fighting unhealthy management policies in Nigeria particularly in Anambra state civil service?
- What are the various strategies which the employers should adopt to ensure smooth continuity of both the organization and the workers employment position?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: Trade unionism have negative impact on management policy implementation in Anambra state civil service.
H1: Trade unionism have positive impact on management policy implementation in Anambra state civil service.
H0: There are no methods/weapons used by trade unions in fighting unhealthy management policies in Nigeria particularly in Anambra state civil service.
H1: There are lot of methods/weapons used by trade unions in fighting unhealthy management policies in Nigeria particularly in Anambra state civil service.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCES OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will greatly contribute to the resolution of industrial disputes resulting from the non-rationalization of management policies with the objectives of the employees which they seek expressly or implied through their trade unions.
The findings of this study will greatly help the management of Anambra state civil service to adopt and implement their policies in conjunction with the views of the employees of the organization. This will go a long way in joining the support and loyalty of the workers for the organization towards productivity because it is the same workers who are directly or indirectly involved in such policy formulation that are also those responsible for the implementation of those formulated policies.
Generally, it is believed that when employees are granted the right either express or implied towards policy formulation, it will enhance their commitments to the successful implementation of the policy, as well making it humanly possible to work.
Further, this study will also be of great importance and value to student studying business administration and management in particular, as well as those studying personnel management, industrial relations as distinct courses, hence it will enable them to be acquainted to courses like sociology, politics etc. in a work situation.
This study apart from its main objectives will contribute immensely in the following ways:
- This research work will be relevant to management and employees.
- It will contribute to the advancement of the existing literature trade unionism and management policy implementation in Anambra state.
- The empirical result and recommendation obtained will be beneficial to other public sectors in Nigeria; it will also be of importance to government, academicians, potential and future researchers on the issue of Trade Unionism and Policy Management Implementation in Anambra civil service.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is centered on influence of trade unionism on management policy implementation in Anambra state civil service as a case study for a limited period of time.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is wide in scope, if not because of it’s wide scope and expenses involved I would have carried it out in all the states civil service in Nigeria but for the above reason the study is specifically limited to Anambra state civil service for effective and efficient study and to be free from bias, since the study is associated with time constraint, finance, human and material costs. Nevertheless, the above limitations also constituted of hindrance why carrying out the research in the Anambra state civil service.
Having limiting their study, attention is paid mainly and the marketing departments. This does not mean that other departments were not include but the above named departments has much to offer to the progress of the organization or is considered as the most essential departments of the organization.
Even though these findings may or may not be necessary to other brewery industries in the country, due to different on management policies and implementation. It could be applicable to some other breweries in the country due to similarities in production process, administration etc. the study is limited to Anambra state civil service purposely for a good research.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Administration: Co-ordination of human activities towards achieving the organizational goals or set objectives.
Conflict: Disagreement in understanding each other.
Exploitation: This however means using the human energies of the workers without equal rewards to that effect.
Harmony: As used in the study means peace a money the workers the management and the trade union.
Implementation: As used in the study means carrying out or use or simple execution / putting into action.
Industrial dispute: Emergency of trouble or disagreement in work situation between the management and the works.
Work Force i.e. the engagement of humans in the production of goods and services for the benefit of other, used here as human resources.
Management: Refers to the board of directors or management term of Anambra state civil service
Policy: A set of rules or principles to guide the activities of members of the organization under study (Anambra state civil service) toward the attainment of a given objective within specified time or purpose.
Rationalization: To the context of this study refers to proper distribution or formulation of policies that will guide the organization and her staff.
Subordinate: This simply means a person who takes command or order or instruction from his superior in ranking.
Trade union: Combination of members of the same profession or skills or trade etc. for their common interest or goal.
Trade unionism: Means simply the stem of trade union.