INSECURITY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (2019-2022).

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                        Abstract.

Security is tied to both social, political and economic growth and development of Nigeria. The incapability and negligence of the security sector is responsible for the non-performance of democratic governance and its attendant violent crimes, such as armed robbery, ethnic crisis, electoral violence, kidnapping, police brutality, etc. Therefore this study examined the missing gaps between security and development Using content method of analysis,the study discovered that bad governance have impacted negatively on insecurity in Nigeria.It also posits that weak security system, crises and insecurity mitigates the development of a country . However ,this is as a result of high rate of unemployment, poverty, kidnapping, armed robbery and the insecurity effect on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have deterred national development in a massive way.Based on the findings of this study,we recommend that Nigeria government at all levels should unify and address the root causes of bad governance,and through good governance, government should creat job opportunities for the teeming unemployed youths. Furthermore,the security architecture of the country should be properly trained,well equipped,funded and cordinated to protect lives and properties through intelligence gathering mechanism with the cooperation of the international community .Finally, stringent  punitive measures should be meted out to any person or group of persons convicted of acts of insecurity to serve as deterrent to would be mischief makers as regards to the creation of rehabilitation centers and  programmes will help ex_convicts/ offenders to reintegrate into the society.This will aid to curtail the implications of insecurity in Nigeria and also aid the increase in development of the nation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

              TABLE OF CONTENT.

 

Title Page

Approval Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.

1.1    Background of the Study.

1.2    Statement of the Problem.

1.3    Research Questions.

1.4    Objectives of the Study.

1.5.   Significance of the Study.

1.6    Scope of the Study.

1.7    Limitations of the Study.

1.8    Literature Review.

1.9    Gap in Literature

1.10  Theoretical Framework.

1.11  Research Hypothesis.

1.12  Research Methodology.

1.13  Research Design.

1.14  Definition of Terms.

 

CHAPTER TWO: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.

2.1. The Origin of Insecurity in Nigeria.

2.2.  Security and Development Concepts.

2.3. Governance And Insecurity in Nigeria.

2.4. Major Causes of Insecurity in Nigeria.

 

CHAPTER THREE: WEAK SECURITY SYSTEM AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

3.1. The Interface Between Weak Security System and National Development in Nigeria.

3.2. The Interface Between National Development and National Security.

3.3. The Dimensions of Kidnapping.

3.4. The Major Contentions in the Insecurity Paradigm in Nigeria.

 

CHAPTER FOUR: THE IMPLICATIONS OF INSECURITY ON NATIONAL

                           DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.

 

4.1. The Implications of Insecurity in Nigeria.

4.2. What Have Nigerian Government Done to Curb Insecurity?

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1  Summary

5.2  Conclusion

5.3  Recommendations

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                CHAPTER ONE.

                                     INTRODUCTION.

1.1. Background of the Study.

A country cannot achieve development unless it first seeks to achieve human security (Omoyibo, 2013). This is because human resources are essential to any country‘s development; but if the people are living in fear, then they cannot be productive or competent in any environment. Therefore, the first responsibility of any nation and its respective ports of entry is human security. Hence, the primary role of any state is to preserve the security of the people occupying its territory. Accordingly, policies should focus on protecting homeland security, freeing people from fear and pushing forward with development, which must focus more on the type of progress and how people would benefit as opposed to how much development plans must be a country‘s capacity to respond to the needs and desires of its citizens. This development must also involve the people and bring them along in a way that they can relate to. This is because one of the main reasons why persons get involved in criminal activities such as kidnapping, militancy, religious sectarianism, cultism, child abuse, drug trafficking, prostitution, piracy, armed robbery, political thuggery etc. is because of money and the emphasis that society as a whole places on money (Olisaemeka, 2011). National security remains the development obligatory of developing countries of the world and indeed, the major prescribed goal of the international community. This involves the attainment of sufficient levels of economic growth and violent free society to allow for a progressive improvement in the standard of living of the citizenry (Abidoye, 2021).

The current security challenge in the country is better understood against existing evidence that even government officials and traditional rulers are not spared. Kidnappings are targeted at the executive, legislative, and the judicial branch of the government, and also their family members in spite of the tight security at their disposal. This has led to some of these officials relocating their families outside the geopolitical zone or outside the country, thereby leaving the civilian population at the mercy of the marauding gangs. Anecdotal evidence suggests that Abuja, and Lagos; that were once regarded as insecure states, are now destinations of choice for many, and Ghana, for those that can afford it.

Since the emergence of nascent democracy, major cities and towns have become flashpoints of violent clashes, kidnapping, assassination, rape, hijacking, sabotage, insurgency, looting etc. The Police and other security agencies appeared to be compromised while the government remains insensitive. The billions of Naira voted for security both at State and Federal levels for unexplainable reasons are not made available to combat these problems. Meanwhile citizens continued to fulfill their obligations to the Government of the day amid this state of insecurity, fear and tension. Similarly, electioneering campaigns and indeed the election itself are marred with riggings, violence and unrest (Oshio, 2019).

It is undisputable that this national insecurity which takes horrible and terror dimensions has halted the sustainability of development in the nation. Insecurity has become part of the most disturbing problems that have slowed down the pace of development in Nigeria. The political and socio-economic status of the country stands testimony to it (Sheu and Alamu, 2017). Policy makers, law enforcement and other key stakeholders in judicial matters also have to examine what are the major causes; why insecurity is prevented in our society and sort out ways of alleviating the reasons why people tend to perpetuate the acts of insecurity. Thus, they should concentrate on strengthening the rule of law and building international judicial cooperation, otherwise, they would leave our country vulnerable for the less desirable to rule our lives.

Despite the plethora of security measures taken to address the daunting challenges of insecurity in Nigeria, government efforts have not produced the desired positive result.This has compelled the Nigerian government in recent time to request for foreign assistance from countries such as USA, Israel, and EU countries to combat the rising waves of terrorism and insecurity. Amidst the deteriorating security situation in the country, Nigeria is also confronted with daunting developmental challenges which pose serious threat to her national development. These developmental challenges include endemic rural and urban poverty, high rate of unemployment, debilitating youth unemployment, low industrial output, unstable and deteriorating exchange rate, high inflation rate, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, very large domestic debt, and rising stock of external debt (Adigwe, 2020).

However, global peace and security in today’s world and age is almost lost, the world is in dire need and search for peace and security for sustainable development. The Nigerian state has faced a myriad of security challenges which has become a major impediment to her democratic governance and development in recent times. Terrorism, kidnapping, senseless killings, nihilism, maiming and burgeoning restlessness, have been unabatedly rampant, among others. Thus, citizenry in the Nigerian state, despite her efforts and apparatus set up by the government to ensure adequate protection of lives and property, citizens are incessantly living in perpetual fear, worry and danger (Akinride, 2019).  In line with this, Boko Haram sect has factually joined the dawn marchers to orchestrate moral evils in Nigeria. However, this bloodletting, senseless killings, assassination and anti-religious actions are inimical to the major religious tenets (Suswam, 2012).

Against this backdrop, this research explores the pertinent issues of national insecurity and the challenges of insecurity in contemporary Nigeria within the confine of her democratic governance and development aspiration among comity of nations.

 

1.2. Statement of the Problem.

Nigeria’s national security is in a stage of dooms day conspiracy with multi-dimensional phases of threat flowing from different sections of the society. The dimension of Nigeria’ security is largely centered on conventional method at the expense of grand strategy. The military and other defence and security apparatus are given primacy without considering the impact and level of perceived threat of poverty as a potent source of threat to the national security.  According to Mijah (1998), most countries especially the developed countries, perceived national security threats mainly in terms of nuclear demands, arms balance and hostile international alliance. But since the end of the cold war, international policy makers and statesmen have increasingly become attentive to national occurrence and national security question. These occurrences include poverty, over-population, which often for good or bad impacted on the nation’s interest abroad.

The overwhelming presence of insecurity in Nigeria today is easily established without recourse to any authority citation. Armed robbery, ethnic/communal clashes, religious riots and all forms of social unrest and upheavals had left many dead, maimed and homeless. Many Nigerians have fallen to the assassins’ bullets. Others have been kidnapped and only released on huge ransom which re-payment they might not be able to meet up. Kidnapping has become a very fast-growing industry enriching the criminals with millions of Naira on daily basis. The rising wave of insecurity in Nigeria in the recent times has assumed a very dangerous dimension which is fast retarding her development and threatening the corporate existence of the country as a nation. Insecurity has become the defining characteristics of Nigerian political scene, especially since the return to democracy in 1999.

In Nigeria, the Austerity Measure of the early 1980s, the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) of the mid 1980s, the Minimum Wage Crisis of 1999 and 2000, the Ethno-religious crisis, the high rate of inflation, armed robbery and even prostitution among others are in one way or the other linked with poverty. All these problems are arising largely due to the craving need to satisfy our basic necessities (of food, clothing, shelter, health and literacy). Hence all sorts of social vices seem to be the only solution to attain these basic needs. The people’s violent reactions to each other or to government policies could easily be explained in the popular adage that “a hungry man – is an angry man” due to absence of inadequate means of satisfying there basic needs. It is however pertinent to note that apart from poverty related factors there are obvious, there are other factors that threaten or breach the national security. Some of these factors include absence of good and responsive/responsible governance, absence of justice, equity and rule of law, institutional and endemic corruption in both public and private conduct, cyclical nature of poverty which metamorphose as a result of wealth circulating only in the hands of few individuals which ascertain the draconian policies associated with capitalism and neo-globalization by extension. Manipulation of socio-economic, political, regional or religious factors or personal gains all put together or separately can serve as a great threat to peace, unity, development and progress and by extension affecting the national security.

Therefore the statement of problem of this research work covers the economic loss caused by insecurity, as Nigeria losses a huge amount of money per day on insecurity alone. Also in line with this is the level of unemployment caused by insecurity in Nigeria, as many businesses in the country are directly or indirectly affected by insecurity such as Unknown gunmen in the South East, Kidnappers and Herdsmen in the Northern Nigeria. The peace and Development is already at stake in an environment which encourages crime, thereby leading to the reduction of Foriegn Direct Investment (FDI) in the country.

 

1.3. Research Questions.

However, the following research questions will guide our study vis a vis;

  1. Is there any relationship between bad governance and insecurity in Nigeria?
  2. Is there any relationship between weak security system and national development in Nigeria?
  3. To what extent did insecurity implications hinder national development in Nigeria?

 

1.4. Objectives of the Study.

The broad objective of this study is to interrogate the impact of Insecurity on National Development in Nigeria focusing on 2019_2022. However,the specific objectives includes the following;

  1. To discover the main factors that chronicled the state of insecurity in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the relationship between weak security system and national development in Nigeria.
  3. To measure the extent to which insecurity implications hindered national development in Nigeria.