Medicinal plants are known to contain substances which could be used for treatment purposes or used to produce drugs . Africa and Nigeria is favoured with numerous and readily available plants with medicinal properties.
The local use of Natural plants for primary health remedies is common practice in Asia, Latin America and other parts of the world .
The use of plants extracts or their active principle may serve as sources of intermediate compounds for synthesizing analog drugs .
The plant is claimed to also exhibit anti-helmitic and antimalarial properties .
The phytochemical constitution and therapeutic effects of most of these plants are documented. One of these plants is Garcinia Kola a fruit of nut-bearing tropical tree native to Nigeria’s coastal rainforest . It is also known as bitter Kola and consumed all over the country either leisurely or for its medicinal values. In addition, the plant possess hepato-protective values [6,7], analgesic and hypo-glycemic activities [8,9].
Many of such plants known to be used primitively to alleviate symptoms of illness have been screened to have medicinal importance, some of which includes Azadirachtaindica (Dogonyaro), V. Amygdalina (Bitter leaf) Allium satium (Garlic), O. gratissimum (scent leaf) and ZingiberOfficinale (Ginger). These plants have been reportedly used in the treatment of ailments such as stomach disorder, fever symptoms and cough traditionally . It is documented that VernoniaAmygdalina has been used traditionally in blood clothing and elicited a substantial reduction in the level of glucose in the blood.  It has been reported that V. Amygdalina has hypoglycemic activity, they observed a close dependent reduction in fasting blood sugar level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after treatment with different concentration of aqueous leaf extract . It is also demonstrated, VernoniaAmygdalina leaf extract as a DNA-damaging of anti-cancer agent in the management of breast cancer. The wide use of antibiotic (drugs) in the treatment of infections has emergence and spread of resistant strains. The emergence of multiple drug resistant bacteria (MDR) has become a major cause of failure of the treatment of infectious diseases .
Findings yields great significance in health delivery systems, since it could be used as an alternative treatment to orthodox antibiotics in the treatment of diseases caused by bacterial isolates especially as they frequently develop resistance to known antibiotic and reduce the cost of obtaining care as observed by [14, 15], documented antibacterial activity of these plants on selected gram positive and negative bacterial isolates  showed the extracts of ZingiberOfficinale, MyristicaFrangrans, Ocimumgratisssum, thyme, guava showed anti-bacterial activity against anti-bacteria such as pseudomonasaeruginosaetc
All parts of the plants are pharmacologically suspected to be useful. Both the roots and leaves are used in the treatment of hiccups, stomach discomfort and kidney, among others .
For these reasons, researchers are increasingly turning their attention to herbal product for new leads to develop better drugs and also identifying the active ingredients responsible for the treatment of those multiple drug resistant bacterial.
1.2 Botanical Classification of Bitter leaf
Bitter leaf belong to the Kingdom of Plantae,Phylum of Tracheophyta, Class of Magnoliopsida, Order of Asterales, Family of Asteraceae, Genus of Vernonia, Species of Vernoniaamygdalina
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The world is still experiencing a wide evolution of new diseases and high cost of orthodox antibiotics, there are still high resistance of bacteria, fungi and virus to orthodox antibiotics. Some antibiotic are still toxic, and have adverse effect on patient body and therefore, it becomes imperative to search for new, affordable, available and effective alternative antibiotics, hence the need for traditional medicine still remain the hope of common man. Therefore there is need to carry-out more researches to determine more areas for traditional medicinal application.
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The research tends to solve the problems of inefficacy, high cost and unavailability, toxicity, of antibiotics it tend to investigate the pharmaceutical active compounds available in vernoniaamygdalina.
The objectives would be to;
- Extract the active compounds in the leaf using ethanol.
- Isolate the various components in the ethanol crude extract using column chromatograph
- Test the column eluates on some selected pathogenic bacteria and fungi
- Characterize compounds present in the medicinally potent eluates.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Vernoniaamygdalina (bitter leaf) family asteraceae plant is consumed locally as food and serve important ethnomedicinal uses, therefore, the significant of this research is to characterize, identify the active compounds as a way of establishing the efficacy of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases and also to develop more better drugs to improve health care delivery system in Nigeria.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This work covered
- Collection and identification of the plant matter
- Extraction of active compounds in the leaf using absolute ethanol as solvent
- Separation of the active compounds into fraction using column chromatography
- Preliminary identification of medicinally potent component was done using GC/MS.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, iProjectMaterials.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. iProjectMaterials.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on iProjectMaterials.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.