1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Literally, unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that is occurring due to not in desire of women or sooner than desired, this is commonly seen in younger women age groups (Singh et al., 2010). Globally, about sixteen million young women of age group (15 to 19) give birth every year, most of them are unintended. Moreover, mostly the outcome of this unintended pregnancy results in unplanned births or abortions (FIGO, 2011). The 2008 global estimate of outcome of unintended pregnancy showed among (86) million unintended pregnancies; (13%), (38%) and (48%) end up in miscarriage, unplanned birth and abortion respectively (FIGO, 2011) . Moreover, every year eleven percent birth was seen in younger women in aged group 15 to 19 globally. Furthermore, (95%) of this birth was from low-income countries (IPAS, 2010)
Unintended pregnancy and abortion have a great impact on the health of women; subsequently have great negative impact on the psychological and social life of the girls. The world reference bureau 2008, ranked Nigeria among top list countries with highest number of maternal deaths occurred in the world, this means (1 in 27) women die from complications of pregnancy or childbirth annually due to unintended pregnancy and abortion. The unintended pregnancy which leads women, especially the young women to unsafe abortion and again, lead them to complications and maternal death would be controlled by the use of contraceptive, including emergency contraceptive (Mangiaterra et al., 2008; EFMH and CSA, 2011; Murphy, 2012; Neinstein, 2002)
In general, with the exception of male and female sterilization, all methods that are appropriate for healthy adults are also potentially appropriate for healthy, post-pubertal adolescents. Once puberty has been achieved, methods that are physiologically safe for adults are also physiologically safe for adolescents (Abiodun and Balogun, 2009)
However, as with adults, informed contraceptive decision-making entails consideration of more than just medical safety. Before discussing contraceptive options, adolescents must be given the opportunity to express their needs and to decide freely whether they want to protect against pregnancy or need to protect against STI/HIV (Murphy, 2012).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Students (Adolescence and Teenagers) lack the proper Knowledge on the usage and most suitable method of contraception as prospective parents. This study explores the level of knowledge, attitude and usage of the respondents; it also estimate the most commonly used methods of contraception among them with a view of setting the records and data straight on the level of usage of various methods amongst them.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The study is embarked on to enable the researcher address the following objectives:
- To explore the level of knowledge and attitude Law students of Ambrose Alli University on the matters of Contraceptives and contraception
- To identify what sources of information respondents used to obtain information on contraception.
- To estimates the percentages at which various methods of contraception are being used amongst respondents.
- To establish the respondents understanding on the risk associated with each method of contraception.
1.4 Significance of The Study
Majorly, Contraception reduces unwanted pregnancies amongst students that find it difficult to practice abstinence. Although the usage of contraceptives has been rated high, but it effectiveness has not been at the maximum, Hence, this study is designed to explore the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of various methods of contraception amongst law students of Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma Edo State.
1.5 Scope of Study
The research attempts to give an estimate in percentage the level of usage of various contraceptive methods amongst the respondents and identify various risk involve in usage of various methods amongst Law students of Ambrose Alli University. The area covered by this study is Faculty of Law, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State.
1.6 Research Question
This study will provide answers to the following research questions;
- How informed are the female law students of Ambrose Alli University, towards the knowledge, attitude and practice of various methods of contraception?
- To what extent do female law students of Ambrose Alli University use any contraceptive method.
- What demographic factors contributing to level of awareness and knowledge of respondents to the subject?
- How do they understand the implication of contraception on themselves?
1.7 Research Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis (H0):
- Respondents do not commonly use oral emergency contraceptives and barrier methods such as condoms
- They lack proper and knowledge and possess a negative attitude towards choosing proper method of contraception.
Alternate Hypothesis (H1):
- Respondents commonly use oral emergency contraceptives and barrier methods such as condoms
- They possess full Knowledge and positive attitude towards contraception and choosing the most suitable method
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Knowledge towards contraceptives was measured from study participants response to knowledge measuring closed ended questions: do you know about contraceptive, do you know type and use of contraceptive separately, do you know right time to take contraceptive, Then, the correct response was recorded as Yes and wrong response was recorded as No. Thus, scores greater than or equal to the mean value was considered as good knowledge while score less than the mean value was considered as poor knowledge of contraceptives (DiCenso et al., 2002).
Attitude towards contraceptives was measured form study participants response to importance, cultural acceptance, religious acceptance, and risk effect of contraceptives.
Their response was responded as strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. Then, strongly disagree, disagree and neutral was recorded as No and agree and strongly agree was recorded as Yes. Thus, Scores greater than or equal to the mean value was considered as good attitude while score less than the mean value was considered as poor attitude (Aisien, 2007)
An unintended pregnancy is a pregnancy that is reported to have been either unwanted (that is, the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (that is, the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). Unintended pregnancy is a core concept that is used to better understand the fertility of populations and the unmet need for contraception (birth control) and family planning (Raymond and Grimes, 2012).
Contraception: The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse (Dragoman and Davis, 2008).
Contraceptives: A contraceptive is a device or drug that prevents a woman from becoming pregnant (Hathaway et al., 2002)
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