1.1 Project Background

Energy is a basic necessity for the economic development of a nation. There are different forms of energy, but the most important form is the electrical energy. A modern and civilized society is so much dependent on the use of electrical energy. Activities relating to the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy have to be given the highest priority in the national planning process of any nation because of the importance of electrical energy to the economic and social development of the society. In fact, the greater the per capital consumption of electrical energy in a country, the higher the standard of living of its people. Therefore, the advancement of a country is measured in terms of its per capital consumption of electrical energy. Power plants’ planning in a way to meet the power network load demand is one of the most important and essential issues in power systems. Since transmission lines connect generating plants and substations in power network, the analysis, computation and reduction of transmission losses in these power networks are of great concern to engineers. a lot of research works have been carried out on the above listed aspects.

Electrical energy is the most important form of energy in the present world. it is an energy that drives the economy of any society or country and makes the common citizen happy. Electricity that is been generated from the power station, needs to be transmitted to the end users, through transmission and distribution lines. This transmitted energy is not without losses.

Nigeria transmission of electricity is through a national grid, which either in 330kv or 132kv. Transmission grid is a network that consist of conductors carried on steel towers in between transformer stations, which conveys generated power from power stations to major load centres, and interconnecting all power stations to form a solid network that is accessible to all load centres. [1]

In electricity supply to final consumers, losses refer to the amounts of electricity injected into the transmission and distribution grids that are not paid for by users. The level or extent of these losses are a measure of the efficiency of the electric power networks.  In virtually every electric power network either in a developing country or developed ones, line losses in the course of the transmission of electricity is inevitable.

Over the years, electrical engineers have explored several engineering techniques aimed at minimizing these losses. This study therefore explores the use of particle swarm optimization which is an algorithm based technique in minimization of line losses in electric power networks.


1.2 Problem Statement

In the quest to provide electricity to consumers, energy companies face several challenges. One is choosing either the use of renewable energy sources with its erratic availability, non-renewal energy sources with its environmental impact issues or a combination of both. After that comes the challenge of energy generation in substantial amount, transmission and pricing for consumption. In many countries, the issues of energy sources, transmission and pricing have been tackled but the problem of transmission especially in dealing with line losses still remains a major concern for energy companies around the world. Line losses undermines the efficiency of electric power networks leading to the unavailability of sufficient electricity for consumers while also incurring economic losses for utility companies in the form of wasted electricity.


1.3 Aim of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess how line losses can be minimized using particle swarm optimization.




1.4 Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of the study are;

– To highlight the impact of line losses on electric power networks

– To examine the essence of Particle swarm optimization

– To assess how particle swarm optimization can be utilized in minimizing line losses in electric power networks.


1.5 Significance of the Project

Nigeria as a nation has been facing energy crisis since its independence. Today with a massive population of over 180 million and industries, small businesses with ever growing energy, the nation’s energy has become a major topic for socio- political discourse in recent years. Particularly, studies have shown that the problem with Nigeria’s energy supply is not just about inadequate generation but also losses incurred during electric power transmission.


Consequently, this study is therefore essential for engineering students and professionals in understanding the nature of line losses being experienced in the country and how to harness recent innovative technologies especially particle swarm optimization in addressing it. It will also be relevant to policy-makers in government in enlightening them on the economic effects of line losses and how to minimise it thereby improving the energy efficiency of the country’s energy sector.


1.6 Scope of the Project

The project specifically focuses on the use of Particle swarm optimization in the minimization of line losses in electric power networks. It explains the engineering concept of line losses, electricity sources, electric power networks and the principles of particle swarm optimization.



1.7 Outline of the Project

The project is structured in the following format; chapter one provide an introduction to the project subject, outlining the aims, objectives, scope, problem statement and significance of the study.  Chapter two involves a literature review of the various variables contained in the project topic. Chapter three presents the methodology. Chapter Four presents the empirical results and analysis while chapter five presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.