This project addresses the design of modern washing machine, principle of operation and maintenance, the goal was to design, build and test a prototype modern washing machine that incorporates its principle and maintenance as a mechanical safety feature. The main problem was to develop an ergonomic and low cost solution while ensuring the safety and reliability of the system through-out it full range of motion. The purpose of this study is to gain information related to its development, to aid the removal of dirt’s and stains and in carrying out repairs and maintenance on modern washing machines. A modern washing machine structure includes, peddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing. Inside the cloth washer drum, the paddles turn the clothes through the water, the hole let the water in (from above) and out (from below). The rubber seal stops the water leaking out through the door.














Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Approval Page                                                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                                   iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

1.2 Aim and Objectives

1.3 Scope of Work

1.4 Considerations in Studying

1.5 Limitation of Study


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Modern Washers

2.2 Early Machines

2.3 Automatic Machines

2.4 World War Ii And After

2.5 Operations

2.6 Maintenance


3.0 Methodology

3.1 Design Process

3.2 Types of Washing Machines

3.3 The Drive Mechanism

3.4 The Rinse Cycles


4.0 Introduction

4.1 How Does Your Washing Machine Really Work?

4.2 Testing Analysis

4.3 Why Do Washing Machines Need So Many Programs?

4.4 But Do Machines Really Need So Many Programs?

4.5 The Modern Washing Machine and Its Maintenance


5.0 Summary & Conclusion

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion





A washing machine (Laundry machine, clothes or washer) is a machine used to wash laundry such as clothing and sheets, the term is mostly applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses) or ultrasonic cleaners.

Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the manual labour spent, providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing, the earliest machines where hand-operated and constructed from wood, while later machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the wash tub, keeping the water warm throughout the day’s washing.

The earliest special-purpose mechanical washing device was the washboard, invented in 1797 by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire. By the mid -1850s steam driven commercial laundry machinery were on sale in the UK and US. Technological advances in machinery for commercial and institutional washers proceeded faster than domestic washer design for several decades, especially in the UK.

In the United States there was more emphasis on developing machines for washing at home, though machines for commercial laundry services were widely used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the rotary washing machine was patented by Hemilton Smith in 1858.

As electricity was not commonly available until at least 1930, some early washing machines were operated by a low-speed, single-cylinder hit and miss gasoline engine.

Inside a clothes washer drum, the paddles turn the clothes through the water; the holes let the water in (from above) and out (from below). The rubber seal stops water leaking out through the door.

The basic idea of a clothes washer is simple, it sloshes your clothes about soup acids for a while and then spins fast to remove the water afterwards, but there’s a bit more to it than that.

Think of clothes washer and you probably think of a big drum that fills with water but there are actually two drums, one inside the other.

The inner drum is the one you can see when you open the door or the lip. In a front-loading clothes washer, common in Europe, the drum stands upright, you push your clothes inside the door from the front and the whole drum rotates about a horizontal axis (like a car wheel).

The drum has lots of small holes to let water in and out and paddles around the edge of slosh the clothes around. In a top-loader, more common in the United states and Asia, you open a lip on top and drop your clothes into the drum from above.

The drum is mounted about a vertical axis but doesn’t actually move. Instead, there’s a paddle in the middle of it called an agitator that turns the clothes around in the water.

Clothes washing from yesteryear, this GEC electric washing machine, dating from 1935, were much more primitive than today’s machines. There was no spinning to get the clothes dry instead, you had to use a wringer (also called a mangle) fitted to the top of the machine (a pair of rollers through which you fed the clothes to squeeze out the excess water).

This one is an exhibit at think tank; the science museum is Birmingham, England. There’s a second, bigger drum outside the inner drum that you cannot see, its job is to hold the water while the inner drum (in a front loader) or the agitator (in a top-loader) rotates. Unlike the inner drum, the outer drum has to be completely water-tight-or you’d have water all over the floor.

The two drums are the most important parts of a clothes washer, but there are lots of other interesting bits too. There’s a thermostat (thermometer machine) to test the temperature of the incoming water and a heating element that warms it up to the required temperature, there’s also an electrically operated pump that removes water from the drum when the wash is over.

Theirs is mechanical or electronic control mechanism called a programmer, which makes the various parts of the clothes washer go through a series of steps to wash, rinse, and spin your clothes, there are two pipes that let clean hot and cold water into the machine and a third pipe that lets the dirty water out again. All these pipes have values on them (like little doors) across them that open and shot when necessary).

To control a washing machine top: an old-style mechanical clothes washer programmer, the dial on the left selects the program, the dial on the right sets the wash temperature (it’s effectively a thermostat). Bottom: a modern electronic programmer, these dials are mounted on a computerized programmer circuit, the countdown display tells you how long in hours and minutes it will be before your washing is clean and ready to take out (one hour and two minutes in this case, for a 300c wash with very fast 1400pm spin).

All the important parts of the clothes washer are electrically controlled, including the inner drum, the values, the pumps and the heating element, the programmer is like the conductor of an orchestra, switching these things on and off in a sensible sequence that goes something like this.

  1. You put your clothes in the machine and detergent either in machine itself or in a tray up above.
  2. You set the program you want and switch on the power.
  3. The programmer opens the water values so hot and cold water enter the machine and fill up and outer and inner drums; the water usually enters at the top and trickles down through the detergent tray, washing any soap there into the machine.
  4. The programmer switches off the water valves.
  5. The thermostat measures the temperature of the incoming water. If it’s too cold, the programmer switches on the heating elements, this work just like an electric kettle or water boiler.
  6. When the water is hot enough, the programmer makes through the soapy water.
  7. The detergent pulls the dirt from your clothes and traps it in the water.
  8. The programmer opens the water values again drains from both drums, then it switches on the pump to help empty the water away.
  9. The programmer opens the water values again so clean water enters the drums.
  10. The programmers make the inner drum rotate back and forth so the clean water rinses the clothes. It empties both drums and repeats this process several times to get rid of all the soap.
  11. When all the clothes are rinsed, the programmer makes the inner drum rotate at really high speed around 80mph (130km/h). The clothes are flung against the outside edge of the inner drum, but the water they contain is small enough to pass through the drums, tiny holes into the outer drum spinning gets your clothes dry using the same idea as a centrifuge.
  12. The pump removes any remaining water from the outer drum and the wash cycle comes to an end.
  13. You take your clothes out and marvel at how clean they are.
  14. But there’s still the problem of drying your wet clothes to figure out.



  1. Problem with rotor imbalance arise in washing machine.
  2. Problem in color bleeding
  3. Problem in fill cycle
  4. Problem in typical drive train
  5. Problem in spine and drain cycles
  6. Problem in typical
  7. Problem in fill solenoid values
  8. Problem in water level switches
  9. Problem in fill strainer screens
  10. Problem in overfill
  11. Problem in water level pressure tube
  12. Problem in transmission and driver train (a) Belt (b) Agitator (c) Transmission



This project research is aimed at ascertaining how the modern washing machine work, its operations and maintenance produces.

The aim is to provide the entire department served adequate supply of clean linen conforming to highest standards of cleanliness and hygiene immediately and constantly available for routine and emergency use from a central place this reducing the overall cost and effective supply of linen to all departments.

The Objectives are:

  • To provide linen free or dirt, soils and stairs to all users.
  • To monitor and enforce controls necessary to prevent spoilage (wear and tear due to washing) of linen and reduce the frequency of linen turn over by increasing the life
  • To maintain record of effectiveness of cleaning disinfecting and turnover.
  • To stay undated regarding developments in the field in the interest of efficiency, economy, accuracy and provision of better patient care.
  • To undertake studies for improvement of clean practices and processing method to provide supplies economically.
  • To develop a cost effective program by cost analysis of personnel, supplies and equipment.


This research will cover all theoretical aspects of clothes washing machine

Inside a clothes washer drum, the paddle turns the clothes through the water. The role let the water in (from above) and out (from below). The rubber seal water leaking out through the door.

The inner drum is the one you can see when you open the door or the lid. In front loading clothes water, common in Europe, the drum stands upright. You push your clothes inside the door from about a horizontal axis (like a car wheel). The drum has lots of small holes let water in and out and paddles around the edge to slosh the clothes around.



Due to the lifespan of modern washing machine the considerations are base of the following.

  1. Stress: The biggest cause of washer breakdown is stress, overloading the washer’s puts stress on all of the extra parts like the motor, the drive belts and the coupling. The harder these parts work the shorter the lifespan.
  2. By the Number: Washer are related by how many cycle they can perform before they breakdown. Each load is considered one cycle being able to handle about 5100 cycles. Of course machine that cost less may only be machines may be rate 8000 cycle or higher.
  3. Current drop in Nigeria can reduce the lifespan of the modern washing machine do to inefficiency of electricity in our country.




Due to the reason that we are not designing modern washing machine, the limitation study is unknown.