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Objective, to access the occupational health hazard faced by health care worker and mitigation measures. A cross sectional study utilizing a quantitative data collection method among 20 respondent who work in the primary health centers of ward 4,5,6 and 7 in Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state. Results, from the study carried out, 100% of the respond agreed that they have heard of occupational health hazard, while 95% said they can identify them. musculoskeletal hazards (35%) was discovered to be more prevalent, and 90% respondent said occupational health hazard can be detected through biological monitoring, epidemiological method, environmental monitoring and threshold limit value (T.L.V). while 75% respondent said the various method can be used to detect early and prevent further occupational health hazard. 70% of the respondent said they do not use the universal protective device, owing it to the fact that the universal safety devices are not readily available. However, 16(80%) believed that occupational hazard can be prevented using the universal safety devices/measures. The research also shows that nurses suffer more of occupational hazard than other health workers. And most of the respondent owed it to stressful shift work, to Lack of protective device, while the highest respondent accorded it to shortage of man power 06(30%). While 04(20%) said that all the above mentioned reasons are contributory factor. More so, a majority of 14(70%) said they do not have the post exposure department. In conclusion, health workers in this settings experience several hazards in the workplace. Interventions should be put in place to mitigate these hazards, specifically universal protective device and post exposure prophylaxis should be made available.






Cover page      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Title page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

Table of contents        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

List of Tables  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

Chapter One


Background of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           1

Statement of the Problem       –           –           –           –           –           –           2

Objectives and Aim of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           3

Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           4

Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

Scope of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

Operational Definition of Terms         –           –           –           –           –           6

Chapter Two

Literature Review

Concept of occupational health-         –           –           –           –           –           7

Aims and objective of occupational health     –           –           –           –           8

Classification of occupational hazard –           –           –           –           –           9

Factors that contribute to occupational health hazard            –           –           –           13

Method of detecting occupational health hazard-      –           –           –           14

Method of control of occupational hazard-    –           –           –           –           15

Theoretical review       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17

Implication of the theory        –           –           –           –           –           –           19

Empirical study-          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

Summary-        –           –                       –           –           –           –           –           22

Chapter Three

Research Methodology                                                                                

Research Design         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

Study Area      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

Study Population        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

Sample and Sampling Techniques      –           –           –           –           –           24

Instrument of Data Collection            –           –           –           –           –           –           24

Validity of the Instrument      –           –           –           –           –           –           24

Method of Data Collection     –           –           –           –           –           –           25

Method of Data Analysis       –           –           –           –           –           –           25

Ethical Consideration –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

Chapter Four

Result of Data Analysis          –           –           –           –           –           –           27

Answering Research Questions          –           –           –           –           –           43

Chapter Five

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations                             

Discussion       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

Implication for Nursing          –           –           –           –           –           –           48

Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

Recommendations      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

References      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

Appendix        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           54



  • Respondents age rang
  • Respondents marital status
  • Respondents levels of education
  • Respondents religion
  • Respondents knowledge about the identification of occupational health hazard
  • Respondents use of universal safety precautions device
  • Respondents safety measure to prevent occupational hazard
  • Nurses affected by various kinds of occupational hazard
  • The existence of post exposure prophylaxis department.





In recent years, it has become apparent that health care workers are exposed to a variety of occupational insult that can result in serious acute and long term adverse health outcome. In nursing, the situation is complicated because of high demand on quality nursing care, most nurses do not have adequate knowledge on the assessment of hazard when they occur, others may not apply protective measure properly even if they know (monica 2007). However, many hospital are built and managed without due concern for the workers, often because of lack of experience in the area of occupational health.

Occupational health (OH) was defined by the joint committee of international labor office and world health organization in 1980 as cited by Meler (2014) as the promotion and maintenance of the highest physical and social wellbeing of workers in all occupation and places of employment. Hazard are risk or danger that  are inherent to one’s occupation. Occupational hazards are often encountered in industries, agricultural settings, mining, hospitals and other work environment. The major agents of occupational hazard are chemical, physical, biological agent and psychological factors.

Health care professionals especially nurses are constantly exposed to certain kind of occupational hazard in the course of practice which are detrimental to their health and these exposure usually result from the fault of the hospital managers who manage the hospital without due concern for the workers, often because of lack of experience in the field of occupational health. Beside it could be because of nonchalant attitude by the workers thus overlooking the use of protective measures.  These hazards often affect the nurses in health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state. However, these hazards include minor injuries, infections, like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, laser fever, assault and battery. However, the word hazard should not be used as synonym for accident. It is not an accident but a condition with the potential for causing harm. The resultant effects of exposure to hazards are accidents   and neurologic effect.


Occupation however the nature has a major influence on the physical mental social and spiritual wellbeing of individual, family and the society at large.  Nursing is one of the occupation that encounter these hazards and they include- physical, chemical, biological and stress related hazards.

Recently, it has been observed that some nurses loss their lives as a result of exposure to some deadly organism, accidents, disaster. e.t.c. The researcher observed that some of these hazards affect nurses in the health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state. It is on the basis of healthy living and life-free hazard that motivated the researcher towards ascertaining the implication of occupational health hazard in nursing practice in the health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state.


The objectives of the study specifically are to:

  • To identify the possible occupational hazard affecting nursing practice in the health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state
  • To Identify the safety measures to prevent occupational hazard
  • To ascertain the hazard that is more prevalent
  • To ascertain the available universal safety/preventive materials in the ward
  • To ascertain if the nurses use the universal safety precaution/protective devices.
  • To ascertain the existence of post exposure prophylaxis health service for nurses in the selected health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state.


The finding of this study on the occupational health hazard on nursing practice will help to create awareness to the nurses in the selected health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state, on the cause and preventive measures of common hazards affecting nurses. The hospital management also by this finding will see the reason for the use of protective devices thus making provision for such the study will provide information to the government on the prevalence of occupational health hazard and the need for adequate funding of health institute as well as the establishment of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) health service department in the hospital. This department will help to control work related disease and proper treatment of victims and also to be beneficial to students and researchers.


  • What are the possible occupational hazard affecting nursing practices in the health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state?
  • Which of the hazard is more prevalent?
  • How can these hazards be monitored/detected?
  • Are there available universal safety/preventive materials in the hospital?
  • Do the nurses use the universal safety precaution/protective devices?.
  • What are the safety measures to prevent occupational hazards?.
  • Is there existence of post exposure prophylaxis health service for nurses in the health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state?.

1.6       SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this study is in the selected health centers of Esan West Local Government Area Ekpoma, Edo state which are ward 4, 5, 6 and 7 . It is delimited to nurses working in these centers irrespective of their cadre. The health centers in the ward includes;

ward  4 Ekpoma PHC Eguare

Head Post Eguare

ward 5 Ihumudumu PHC Ihumudumu

PHC Idumebo

ward 6 Iruekpen Comprehensive health center irruekpen

PHC Irruekpen

ward 7 Emuhi PHC Ujoelen


PHC Emuhi



The following terms are defined in the context of the study

  • Hazard: a potential source of harm or adverse effect on a person or persons.
  • Health: the condition of one’s body /mind, systems, organs e.g. may be good, poor or bad.
  • Implication: side effect, complication, consequences arising from occupational health hazard among nurses in ISTH.
  • Occupation: job one does to earn his/her living e.g. nursing.
  • Occupational Health Hazard: are risks e.g. injuries, accidents and illness, that nurses encounter in the course of their practice.
  • Protective Device: materials like apron, mask, hand gloves, boot etc that protect nurses from injury while working.
  • Protective Measures: these are set of activities geared towards safeguarding nurses from contacting work related illness.


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