The paper discussed the nutritive value and phytochemical contents of fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis HOOK F) vegetable grown with four levels of organic manure (turkey dropping). The effects of four levels of organic manue (0,100, 150 and 200kg/ha) on the vegetable were examined. The proximate composition, minerals, vitamins and the phytochemical contents of the vegetable were determined at six and eight weeks after planting (WAP). The results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash content as well as vegetable yield increased while crude fiber, carbohydrates and food energy decreased significantly with increasing levels of manure application. Most of the proximate components are at their best at 150kg/ha. All the considered vitamins and major minerals were also found to have increased significantly with the increasing levels of manure application. Among the phytochemical contents considered flavournoids and saponins increased while alkaloid and phenols decreased significantly with increasing levels of manure application. The proximate compositions minerals, vitamins and phytochemical contents increased with level of manure application and have their peaks at 150kg/ha. Application of organic manure (Turkey droppings) up to 150kg/ha has been recommended, among others to increase the nutritive and phytochemical contents of the fluted pumpkin (Telfaria and occidentialis) vegetable in Southern Nigeria agro-chemical zone.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of content vii
Aims and objectives 5
Scope of the study 5
Limitation of the study 6
Statement of the problem 7
Significance of the study 8
Literature review 10
Mineral and nutrient analysis 23
Cucurbita (Pumpkin) is one of the underutilized crops which belong to the family, cucu-bitacene. Its existence is presently been threatened due to neglect in Nigeria. Pumpkin is cultivated in Nigeria in subsistence level with virtually no commercial importance role in traditional setting as a cover crop and used control agent (DELAHAUT AND NEWENHOUSE 2006). In Nigeria, it is a traditional crop grown mainly for its leaves, fruits and seeds and consumed either by boding the leaves and fruits, or by roasting or baking the seeds (FACCIOLA 1990). The leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds are used as medicine in some developed world. The leaves are haematinic, analyzed and also used externally for treating burns. Traditionally, dyspepsin and stomach disorders (SENTU AND DEBJANI 2007). Pumpkin fruit is an excellent source of vitamin A which the body needs for proper growth, healthy eyes and protection from diseases. It is also rich in vitamin C, vitamin E, lycopene and dietary fiber (PRATT AND MATERIALS 2003; WARD 2007).
In Africa, traditional vegetables are an important source of nutrients and vitamins for the rural population, as many nutritional studies have shown (MNZAVA ET AL 1999; MOSHAND GAGA 1999).
Farmers have cultivated and collected these vegetables for generations as an additional food source. Natural selection and farmer based breeding practices have developed the genetic base of the most important vegetables like pumpkin. In recent decades, there has been formal research by national agricultural research programmes and international research organizations on cultivation methods of the vegetables to improve their yield (MNZAVA ET AL 1999). African leafy vegetables are increasingly recognized as possible contributions of both micronutrients and bio-active compounds to the diets of population in Africa. Available data on the more commonly consumed varieties point to antioxidants containing leafy vegetables that can also provide significant amounts of beta carotene, iron, calcium and zinc to daily diets (SMITH AND EYAGUIRRE 2007).
The difference between the world’s supply of quality foods and the growth of the global population continues to widen and ways and means of bridging this gap have become a matter requiring an urgent attention. The current surge in the search for nutritious foods is therefore not surprising. The ultimate has not been achieved and this is evidenced by the paucity of literature available on the subject. Several plants exist with very high nutritive value and yet remain unexploited for human and animal benefits (OLADELE AND OSHODI 2007). Although extensive research efforts have been made on the nutritional composition of cucurbita, the proximate composition, phychemical properties and mineral contents of Nigerian cucurbita species have not been comprehensively analyzed.
However, in Nigeria, the populace are unaware of the high nutritional and nutracentual values of cucurbita rather it is regarded as traditional food mainly for the low in care earners,thus has not benefited from the same level of research attention given to other vegetables crops like cucumber, fluted pumpkin etc. This has created an information gap that may have discouraged high income earners and urban dwellers from making this crop a part of their diet. In order to ascertain the nutritive value of the crop species and thereby stimulate interest in its utilization beyond the traditional localities, this study was designed to evaluate the nutritional value of the Nigerian pumpkin fruits.
LIST OF CUCURBITA ACCESSION SHOWING THE PLACE OF COLLECTION
|Name of genotype||Place of collection||Ecological zone|
|Ogo-Mega||Ogoja, Cross River State||Rain forest|
|Ugwu-Lng||Ugwuoba, Enugu State||Derived savanna|
|Uvu wart||Uvuru, Enugu State||Derived savanna|
|Jos-Vari||Jos, Platuea State||Southern Guinea Savanna|
|Akw-01||Akwanga, Nassarawa State||Southern Guinea Savanna|
|Akw-02||Akwanga, Nassarawa State||Southern Guinea Savanna|
|Akw-03||Akwanga, Nassarawa State||Southern Guinea Savanna|
|Akwa-R4||Awka-Anambra State||Derived savanna|
|Ugwu-Rd||Ugwuoba, Enugu State||Derived savanna|
|Ngwo-Wart||Ngwo, Enugu State||Derived savanna|
Will aid the promotion of the use of pumpkin and the management of nutrition related problems in Nigeria. It will also help to address the current global food security problems since the crop grows and yields well even with very little attention.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To study the phytochemical and nutritive composition of fluted pumpkin.
The resulting research examined and analyzed the proximate amino acid and chemical composition of fluted pumpkin and to determine the physico chemical attributes of fresh pumpkin and most importantly to know the organic manure (turkey droppings) of fluted pumpkin.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research is aimed at evaluating the influence of organic manure (turkey droppings) fluted pumpkin and to discover its mineral and nutritive composition for which indicates for enhanced diet supplement.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Despite that this research work tries to highlight the nutritive composition of fluted pumpkin and the hindrances when about to write the project.
- Time constraint: The research was constrained by time limit. It posed a threat to the successful coverage intended in the course of this study. We also have the problem of managing time because we needed time to attend lectures while we have the time to do our practical for the project.
- Cost Factor: The presence of economic hardship in our country posed to a great extent a problem in proving the whole materials, information (and transportation) needed other statistical data procured was also limited by cost factor. However, the researcher made it possible to overcome the hindrance of finance.
- Bad road: The bad roads prevalent in our country were contributing to the sufferings of the researcher passed through unmaking research.
- Unavailability of research materials: Unavailability of research material which limited the researchers from getting enough information for the introduction and especially literature review.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To study the problem involved in phytochemical and nutritive composition of fluted pumpkin.
- Telfaria occidentals, a prophylactic medicine for alcohols damaging effect on the testics.
- It also affects sperm count lowering it and contributing to fertilizer.
- Some of the local vegetables in Nigeria contains anti-nutritional factors such as cyanogenic, glucoside.
- Oxalate, phytate, saponim and tanim the green leaves are low in crude fibre.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To study the importance of phytochemical and nutritive composition of fluted pumpkin gain in the country.
- Is a review on the nutritional importance of leafy vegetables.
- These complex chemical substances of different composition are found as recent studies have shown that yelfairia occidentialis leaf is rich source of protein oil, vitamins and minerals which enhances nourish, protect and heal the body.
- Ruminant production, benefits from the introduction of adapted browse/legume species into low quality grass dominated pasture.
- The rich source of folic acid, calcium, zinc, potassium, cobatt, copper, iron, vitamin A have medicinal value.
- The plant also contain considerable amount of antinutrients such as phytic acid, tannim and saponin which could also have some health benefits to its consumers due to the richness of the leaves in iron and it is used to cure anemia.