TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Table of content – – – – – – – – v
List of tables – – – – – – – – viii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – ix
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – 2
1.3 Aim and objectives – – – – – – 4
1.4 Significance of study – – – – – – 4
1.5 Research questions – – – – – – 5
1.6 Scope of the study – – – – – – 5
1.7 Operational definition of terms – – – – 5
Literature Review – – – – – – – 7
2.1 Conceptual framework – – – – – 7
2.2 Empirical review – – – – – – 35
2.3 Theoretical framework – – – – – 37
Methodology – – – – — – – – 40
3.1 Research design – — – – – – 40
3.2 Research setting – – – – – – 40
3.3 Target population – – – – – – 40
3.4 Sampling technique – – – – – – 4
3.5 Sample size determination – – – – – 41
3.6 Instrument for data collection – – – – 41
3.7 Validity of instrument – – – – – – 42
3.8 Reliability of instrument – – – – – 42
3.9 Method of data collection – – – – – 42
3.10 Method of data analysis – – – – 42
3.11 Ethical consideration – – – – – – 43
Results – – – – – – – – 44
4.1 Bio Data of Respondents – – – – – 44
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation – – – 50
5.1 Discussion – – – – – – – 50
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 53
5.3 Summary of findings – – – – – – 53
5.4 Implication for nursing – – – – – – 55
5.5 Limitations of the study – – – – – – 55
5.6 Recommendation – – — – – – – 56
5.7 Recommendation for further study – – – – 59
References – – – – – – – – 60
Appendix I – – – – – – – 67
Appendix II – – – – – – – 70
Appendix III – – – – – – – 71
LIST OF TABLE
Table 4.1: Social-demographic characteristics of respondents – 44
Table 4.2: Showing psychological conditions associated
with teenage pregnancy – – – – 45
Table 4.3: Showing how pregnant teenagers react to pregnancy 46
Table 4.4: Showing how teenage pregnancy affects relationship,
social wellbeing and mental health – – – 47
Table 4.5: Showing the effect of teenage pregnancy on health – 48
Teenage pregnancy has attracted a great deal of concern and attention from religious leaders, the general public, policymakers, and social scientists, particularly in the developed and less developed countries especially in Nigeria. Teenage pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic factors such as poverty and domestic violence and also influence on the escalating high rate of teenage pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the psychological, social and health effects of teenage pregnancy and motherhood among teenage girls in Ekpoma, Edo state. Materials and methods: This study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design where a simple convenience sampling technique was used to obtain a number of forty respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that 42.5% of the teenagers experienced severe depression while 22.5% and 13.5% of them had problems with their parents as they were rejected by their families while 87.5% of them dropped out of school. Also 72.5% and 62.5% of them suffered severe financial difficulties and emotional trauma respectively. Study also revealed that 60% of the teenage mothers had severe gestational hypertension while 62.5% had severe complaints that they cannot explain which resulted in elective Caesarean section. Based on the above, it was recommended that nurses should make use of their management skills when teenage pregnancy is confirmed to help the teenager understand the situation and to explore coping mechanisms.
1.1 Background of the study
All over the world, about 80 million unwanted pregnancies take place annually and more than half of those pregnancies are aborted (World Health Organization 2004).One major contemporary social problem confronting most countries in the world is teenage pregnancy. From the first world countries such as the United states to the third world countries, this problem has been a source of worry for policy makers, social workers and other human service providers due to its negative repercussions on the girl-child (Grunseit, 2008). Pregnancy at whatever stage in life can be a life changing experience that cuts across boundaries of race, educational attainment and socio-economic status (Kost et al., 2010). Motherhood places demands on one’s life which were hitherto non-existent prior to the birth of the woman and when a girl that should be in school becomes pregnant, her entire life could be completely altered as her hopes and aspirations could be shattered.
Teenage pregnancy is defined as a teenage girl, usually within the ages of 13-19, becoming pregnant. The term in everyday speech usually refers to girls who have not reached legal adulthood, which varies across the world, who become pregnant. According to (WHO 2004), teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20. Teenage parents according to (Kost et al., 2010) are parents between the ages of 13 and 19 years. (Onuzulike, 2008) believed that it starts at 10-11 years and ends at 20-21 years. Notwithstanding the age at which it begins or ends, the teen years have been described by (Onuzulike, 2008) as a transition period between childhood and adulthood. (Melgosa, 2010) described the teen years as a period of social, psychological and intellectual transition. pregnancy is a delinquent behavior resulting from stress, dislike, malice, boredom and unhappiness experienced by a teenage girl within her home environment and other predisposing factors include alcoholism, drug addiction, sexual promiscuity, social and health problems among adolescents and sexual abuses resulting to unwanted sex and pregnancy (Gaby, 2012).
1.2 Statement of the problem
Teenage pregnancy has attracted a great deal of concern and attention from religious leaders, the general public, policymakers, and social scientists, particularly in the developed and less developed countries especially in Nigeria. The continuing apprehension about teenage pregnancy is based on the profound impact it can have on the lives of the girls and their children. During this period, teenagers are expected to acquire education and skills needed for the future but on the contrary, most teenage girls engage in premarital sex, which expose them to the risks of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) and teenage pregnancies (Umeano, 2010). (Onuzulike, 2008) have indicated poverty, pornography, mass media and peer influence as some of the factors responsible for teenage pregnancy. All teenagers who engage in pre-marital sex are vulnerable to pregnancy. The issue of teenage pregnancy is no longer a new thing in any society be it developed, developing or less developed nations. Various reasons has been adduced for its existence but the basic problem is the persistency and the geometric progression of its expansion despite all the efforts that has been made by both government, schools, religious bodies and nongovernmental agencies at resolving some identified factors leading to this cancerous or decadence in our societies.
According to (Marnach et al., 2013) medically, teenage pregnancy maternal and prenatal health is of particular concern among teens that are pregnant or parenting. The world wide incidence of premature birth and low birth weight is higher among adolescent mothers. Teenage mothers between 15-19 years old were more likely to have anaemia, preterm delivery and low birth than mothers between 20-24 years old physiologically for the child as well as the mother.
The percentage of teenage pregnancy in the society is growing at a high rate. It is perceived that lack of adequate knowledge about sex education to teenage girls make them to be sexually active which eventually leads to pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy has been found to have negative and social long lasting effects on the life of the adolescents. It is in the light of this that this study is carried out to examine the psycho-social and health effects of teenage pregnancy and motherhood in Esan west local government area.
1.3 Aim and objectives
- To determine the psychological effects of teenage pregnancy and motherhood
- To determine the social effects of teenage pregnancy and motherhood
- To determine the health effects of teenage pregnancy and motherhood
1.4 Significance of study
This study is important being that it will help in the enhancement of people’s knowledge of the psycho-social and health effects of teenage pregnancy and motherhood. This study will be of significance to healthcare providers, the general public, vocational psychologists and policy makers.
1.5 Research questions
The research questions for the study are;
- What are the psychological effects associated with teenage pregnancy and motherhood?
- What are the social effects associated with teenage pregnancy and motherhood?
- What are the health effects associated with teenage pregnancy and motherhood?
1.6 Scope of the study
This study is limited to pregnant teenagers and teenage mothers aged 13-19 years old attending antenatal and postnatal care at Ujoelen health centre in Ekpoma , Edo State.
1.7 Operational definition of terms
Motherhood: Motherhood is the state or experience of having or raising a child. Giving birth to and raising a child is an example of motherhood in this study
Psycho-social effect: Psycho-social impact is defined as the effect caused by environmental and/or biological factors on individual’s social and/or psychological aspects.
Health effect: Health effects (or health impacts) are changes in health resulting from exposure to a source. Health effects are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, occupational safety and health, nutrition and health sciences in general.
Teenagers: They are the ones involved in this case. They could be helped through the informative content of this study. They could realize the negative effects of teenage pregnancy and how it could change their whole life.
Pregnancy: Pregnancy is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Teenage pregnancy: This refers to any pregnancy on women that took place between the ages 13-19 years old.
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