TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.. 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM… 6
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.. 8
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION.. 10
1.7 JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.. 10
1.9 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS. 12
2.1 MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS. 37
2.2 MATERIAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES. 39
2.3 EXISTING SITUATION OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT.. 43
2.4 CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT.. 45
2.5 CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION WASTE.. 48
2.6 BENEFIT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN CONFINED SITE CONSTRUCTION 50
3.1 TYPES AND SOURCES OF DATA.. 54
3.2 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION.. 54
3.3 STUDY POPULATION/SAMPLING TECHNIQUE.. 55
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES. 56
3.6 DATA PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES. 56
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS. 57
4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS. 57
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 70
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Rate of Response (ROR)
Table 4.2: Academic Qualification
Table 4.3: Profession in Construction industry
Table 4.4: Data of Establishment of Respondent companies
Table 4.5: Year of Experience of Respondents
Table 4.6: The Nature of Work Undertaken
Table 4.7: Number of Projects that Respondents are involved in
Table4.8:Manner of Material Procurement Practice on construction site
Table 4.9: Causes of material Wastage on building construction site
Table 4.10: Factors Affecting Effective Material Management on Building Construction sites
Table 4.11: Measures for Effective Material Management on Building Construction sites
LIST OF PLATE
Plate i: A sample showing material wastage due to mishandling by poor Supervision
Plate ii: A sample showing alteration of building design
Plate iii: A sample showing storage facilities on building construction site
Plate iv: A sample showing lack of security personnel on building construction site
Plate v: A sample showing inadequate storage facilities/areas on building site
This research study considers the management of materials on building construction sites. In the study, method of material procurement practice on construction site, factors affecting material management on building construction site as well as causes wastages on construction sites were determined. The study further Suggest measures for effective material management in construction site. Data for the study was obtained through a structured questionnaire administered to respondents in different construction sites and head offices of the construction companies in charge of the sites in FCT Abuja. Findings reveal that, 25% of respondents organization procure materials for sites by head office provisions without site requisition, 66.67% of respondents organization procure materials for sites by head office provisions with site requisition and 8.33% of respondents organization procure materials for sites through direct purchase by site manager or engineer. The respondent identified the following as the main causes of material wastage on building construction sites: Damage by mishandling, inadequate storage facilities on site, delay in material supply, inadequate supervision, poor site security, Weather and other natural occurrence, Rework, alteration of designs, over ordering of construction materials, theft and Vandalism. Also pictorial presentations are shown in chapter four based on the findings in the work, appropriate recommendations were made for effective material management on building construction sites.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Cost wise, all construction works depend on two factors, namely, cost of materials and cost of labour and According to Khyomesh (2011), 30 to 70 percent of project cost is consumed by material with about 30 to 40 percent of labour. But labour cost is nearly the same for good construction work as well as bad construction;
therefore attention should mainly be directed to the cost of materials and management of materials. Waste of construction materials on site refers to the difference between materials delivered to construction site and those that are actually used for the construction work (Onabule, 1991) hence from Onabule’s specification it can be affirmed that construction waste are those materials supplied to site for construction and are not being
used in the actual construction constituents. This supports Seeley (1997) views that not all materials delivered to construction sites are used for the purpose for which they are ordered. Furthermore, Formoso, Isatto, and Hirota (1999), defined waste as “any losses produced by activities that generate direct or indirect cost but do not add any value to the product”. Rational management of material to avoid waste is an important consideration for reducing construction cost and construction duration. Therefore, there is a need for efficient materials management in order to control productivity and cost in construction projects. Hence the overall objectives of any on-site management activity should be directed to provide full-guard on construction materials and to perform efficient usage of such materials (Mohammed and Anumba 2006).
Material management is the process that coordinates planning assessing the requirement sourcing, purchasing, transporting, storing and controlling of materials, minimizing the wastage and optimizing the profitability by reducing cost of material. The goal of material management is to ensure that materials are available at their point of use when needed, the material management system attempts to ensure that the right quality and quantity of materials are appropriately selected, purchased, delivered, and handled on site in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost.
Most often contractors carry out project with little or no profit which is so due to procurement systems in which the lowest bidder is often awarded the contract. In trying to cope with lowest bid contract and at the same time avoid construction cost overruns contractors involves in the use of substandard elements, shoddy jobs through use of cheap inexperience labour which most often results in building collapse, abandoned projects, and liquidation of contractors. But researchers have continuously identified that efficient management of materials can result in substantial savings in project costs, (khyomesh, 2011; AbdulRahman and Alidrisyi, 1994). Also said that with good construction material management construction, cost overrun can be avoided profits can be made even with the lowest bid and the various bad practices by contractors can be avoided. It is against this background that this study is initiated for effective material management on construction sites.
The cost of building materials has been identified to constitute the major concern in the course of construction. The cost of materials has been put or placed at an average of 60% of the contract sum. Bearing this in mind and to optimize the cost of construction, it is expedient that a good material flow must be maintained on building site to avoid excessive wastage and save idle time. One of the ways by which this can be done is through materials storage.
Materials storage can simply be defined as merely keeping materials in a safe place until it is required or requested for use in a manufacturing process. Manufacturing process also includes construction process according to Mezue (1994). To obtain good material storage, a system whereby materials are systematically organized by administratively keeping them safely and providing for the best means of flowing in and out of the stores must be adopted.
A good storage system should make available a balanced flow of raw materials, finish materials, component tools, and equipments necessary for production. It should also provide maintenance materials and spare parts as may be required and keep scrap and other materials as the need may arise.
The stores personnel must be effective in their functions in order to maintain a good storage system. Such functions includes supplying of materials and plants for effective use in project, inspection of materials i.e. to check that they are accurate in quality and quantity, receiving materials for safe custody and protection, identification of materials using code numbers and store catalogue, issuing and dispatching of materials, recording and controlling materials and accounting for and taking stock.
In construction industry, the materials that may be available for storage, ranges from raw materials e.g. steel, aluminum, zinc, timber, cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregates e.t.c, precast materials and other materials still undergoing manufacturing process, to package materials e.g. bituminous materials, asphalt paint, coal tar, preservatives e.t.c .
A higher percentage of construction work is concentrated in Lagos and Abuja compare to other part of the country, this is the reason for choosing construction industry in Abuja; FCT as an area for case study. It is seen there that building contractors engages in different types of construction work, ranging from small firms to big firms in the construction industry which will of course will allow for proper research and comparism of different firms as regards to their challenges faced with regards to material management, storage system and the various ways of reducing to a beeriest minimum wastage of materials on building site in order to breakdown the construction cost as well as providing profit to the contractor.
Management is described as the art of directing industrial activities i.e. the ability to accomplish a plan when others do the work. It is the art of getting work done efficiently, effectively, solving and removing all hurdles encountered in between. It therefore requires ablest, daring, energetic person, who can take correct decision at the right time. It also needs qualities of leadership of self ideas and self responsibilities. One who throws responsibilities on others can never be a good manager on long term basis; though he may become successful for a short duration.
Material management involves the planning, organizing, co coordinating and controlling material resources towards the achievement of good objectives. Management on its own is defined by Culvert (1986) as a social exercise, partly art and partly science involving the organization of a numbers of measures put in place in order to achieve a profitable ends. Material management is a process for planning, executing and controlling the field and office activities in construction. The goal of material management is to ensure that construction materials are available at their point of use when needed. Material management is the system for planning and controlling all of the efforts necessary to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials are properly specified in a timely manner, obtained at a reasonable cost and most importantly, available at the point of use when required.
Poor materials management can result in increased costs during construction. Efficient management of materials can result in substantial savings in project costs. If materials are purchased too early, capital may be held up and interest charges incurred for the excess inventory of materials. Materials may deteriorate during storage or get stolen unless special care is taken. Delays and extra expenses may be incurred if materials required for particular activities are unavailable.
Effective construction materials management process is a key to success of a construction project. Costs for materials handling, may range from 30-80% of total construction costs. Therefore, there is a need for efficient materials management in order to control, productivity and cost in construction projects. The review has been carried out to explore the local practice in the construction materials management and develop a construction materials management system to facilitate the management of construction materials mainly in the building construction.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Many construction industries in Nigeria pay less attention to materials management on their building sites due to lack of proper management skills. Currently there are vigorous debates amongst various interest groups about the chronic skills shortages in the country and the inability of the education and training system to meet the needs of the economy. Despite these debates and ongoing policy reforms, the nature of the skills shortage in construction remains poorly defined (CDE, 2007).
In the course of this research work, many building sites faces wastage and lack of management of materials, mostly affected are those upcoming firms. This is because the management of most of these companies do not put in place the necessary and qualified personnel. Sometimes, some of these companies employ those who do not have academic qualification and training. Compare to other big and developed construction companies such as; Julius Berger, Dantata and sawoe that have many qualified personnel as regards their areas of learning and training and the small and developing building industries that have few professionals and many quacks.
Control of building materials on sites varies with company’s management policy as regards to materials on sites. Building materials usually constitute a major portion of the total cost in a building construction project which makes control of this resource very important. The cost of materials to an overall cost of construction is averagely put at sixty percent (Navon and Berkovich 2005).
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to examine methods of managing construction materials effectively on building sites.
In order to achieve the stated aim, the study is set out with the following objectives.
- To identify the challenges of materials control on building sites.
- To determine method of material procurement practices on construction sites.
- To determine the causes of material wastage on building construction sites.
- To identify the factors affecting effective material management and suggest measures for effective material management on building construction sites.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
From the proposed objectives of the study, the study answered the following research questions:
- What are the major methods of material procurement practices on building construction site?
- What are the effects of good and proper management of purchased material, how are profits eroded due to material wastage and what are the means of controlling such loses on sites?
- What are the measures put in place to ensure materials are
properly managed on building construction sites to avoid/reduce wastage and pilfering?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The followings are the formulated hypotheses which are to be tested in this project research work.
- Improving materials management and materials storage in
the building industry; both on site and during production will have no effect on wastage.
- Labour is not one of the causes of wastage both on site and
- Site manager supervision has no effect on wastage in the
- Labour proper supervision has no effect on wastage in the
- Other company’s personnel (e.g. architects, engineers,
builders, project managers, stores keepers. e.t.c) have no business with materials management on site.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
This research will focus on major challenges faced as regards to materials management on building site in Abuja FCT. It will examine causes of material wastage and how it can be minimized. It will also throw light on how construction personnel can manage the materials available on site. Highlight will also be given as regards to the performances of labour on site as in the areas of materials management. Target respondents for the study are principal actors on the building sites; namely: The Architects, Site engineers, Builders, Quantity surveyors and other construction professionals available on the construction sites.
The study adopted descriptive survey research methods which employed the use of questionnaire to collect data from the respondents. One of the limitations associated with the use of questionnaire is that the respondents may not provide all the needed information due to their busy schedule. This weakness might have affected the results of the study.
Another significant limitation to this study was the aspect of transportation and also meeting the respondents as at the time given.
1.7 JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Construction is labour and capital intensive due to this fact; the activities on construction sites has an enormous influence on the quality of materials, material management, the quality of building project and the performance of each construction worker on building sites.
The primary users of building and construction materials are the Builders and the Civil Engineering contractors. They are naturally concerned about the regular availability of materials and affordable cost of materials in the open market. Hence; the subject matter that is challenges facing material management on building sites will provide a better image for the industry as a whole and reduce the financial loss. This research will also help professionals in construction industry to determine the best practices to be employed in outsourcing for labour for better project quality performance.
Material management is the concept that integrates all the activities of planning, scheduling and controlling right from the design stage till the final production including delivery to the consumer or client. It undertakes the function of planning, organizing, integrating and measuring the volume and flow of material. Proper and scientific management of materials is required not only to optimize the period of construction, but also to economies the cost of construction.
It is further important to note that:-
- materials are going to represent a larger and larger proportion of the total cost of what we make and
- Problem of materials procurement and control are going to become more difficult and complicated in the further time.
1.8 STUDY AREA
To some extend; a higher percentage of construction work is concentrated in Abuja compared to other developing state within the country. This is the reuason for choosing construction industry in Abuja as an area for case study. This will help to compare small and large construction industries within Abuja and to know the various challenges facing material management on their building and construction sites.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, iProjectMaterials.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. iProjectMaterials.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on iProjectMaterials.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.