• Background of the study
  • Statement of research problem
  • Objectives of the study
  • significance of the study
  • research  questions
  • research hypotheses
  • assumptions
  • scope and limitation of study
  • definition of terms



    • Sources of literature
    • Importance of  psychology of commercials
    • psychological Determinant of Buyer Behavior
    • commercials and psychology
    • Sociology and commercials
    • Influences on consumer buying behaviors
    • Needs and motivation
    • Brand loyalty and consumer behavior
    • Commercials
    • Theoretical Basis of consumer behavior
    • Summary of literature
    • Theoretical frame work.




3.1    Research method / design

3.1   Research sample size

3.3   Sampling Technique

3.4   Method of Data collection / measuring instrument

3.5   Method of Data Analysis.




4.1   Data Analyses

4.2   Discussion



5.1    Summary

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendations

5.4    limitation of study















This study is aimed at finding the Effect of Television Commercials on the Buying Habits of people in Enugu metropolis: A study of Omo and Elephant Blue Detergents. The study made use of survey (sampling) method of social scientific research which involves interviews using structured questionnaire. The sample size of 200 people was draw from different parts of Enugu metropolis. In distributing the questionnaire, the researcher considered the respondent’s income level, education level, and ensured that they had television sets in their homes. In order to get a true reflection of the study group. Five hypotheses were formulated and addressed. The hypotheses validated or invalidated by the data presented and analyzed shows that, television commercials affects the buying habits of Enugu metropolis, people who are exposed to blue detergents’ commercials tend to accept (buy) Omo blue detergent more than other brands, and brand loyalty to blue detergents, is not habitual rather it is influenced by commercials.






















1.1 Background to the Study

       The Nigerian businessman or manufacturer of various household commodities are now conscious of the fact that, he/she has to provide the consumer with a quality product at a competitive price, in a place where it will be accessible for him to buy and be informed of the existence of such a product through commercials.

With the same manufacturers offering the same type of products, competition now exist and they (manufacturers) are all fighting for the same consumer’s Naria.

In the past, only multinational companies (blue-chips companies) such as Cadbury food specialists, Lever Brothers PLC and P.Z industries PLC as well Coca-Cola Company were notably engaged in serious commercials. These companies have always believed in giving the consumer quality products, developing effective distribution network to ensure that the products are easily obtained, which encourages high product trials by consumers and subsequently builds strong loyalty.

The Nigeria detergent industry is not yet recession prone, it seems to have escaped the bad tag usually associated with most Nigeria made goods and highly proliferated products. The austerity measure led to shortages of imported raw materials facing most detergent companies have justifiably cut down commercials’ expenditure, as they cannot go for heavy weight campaigns for products that are in short supply in the market. Some have completely stopped commercials while those who know the value of commercial still carry reminder commercials.

It is in the light of this importance attributed to television commercials that the researcher seeks to find out whether television commercials affect members of Enugu metropolis’ choice of blue detergents. Whether the presence of other factors such as price, quality of the products, availability of the products, peer group influence, product popularity and its effects on the buying habits of people in Enugu metropolis.

According to Herbert, E. Krugrnan, vice president of MARPLAN:

commercials commonly operates in a situation of involvement where attitude change is usually not the first criterion of effect, but follows long, after a gradual change in perception, perhaps some behavioural choice. That is, if brand A is made salient than brand B, there is a good chance that an individual will buy brand A, and if he changes attitude at all, it probably be after-ward.


Therefore, television commercials operating under low involvement and perceptual defaces, create changes in perceptual structure that can trigger a behavioural act which inturn affects attitude. Katz and Lazarsfeld, (1995:193-263) stressed that: “Consumers preference and choice of product brands may be informed by a cohabitation of varied factors including commercials”.

The quality of a product is a strong motivating factor in the choice of a particular product. The commercial of a particular product that fails to live up to the expectation of the consumers will not be effective and thus will not exert any influence on the consumers.

The primary effects of communication are not directly observable. Primary effects occur at the level of the image a receiver has organized inside the “Black Box” so to speak. While we can make inferences about communication effects based on the receiver’s behaviour. The true effect of a message may be more or less subtle, far reaching and complex than any observable measures can indicate. In other words, a message can be interpreted such that it either results in a change in some part of the image formed or such that it does not.


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

       Commercial is as old as civilization and has long been as a means of communicating the need to buy or sell goods, even for the sale of slaves in ancient time. In its style, it represents the society of the time. Consequently, it is an ever changing process representing new products, services, supplies and demands coupled with the new media techniques for communicating the exchange situation.

The major aim of every business organization is to make profit and this profit is achieved through the patronage of the class of people, the business organization regards as its primary consumers.

The consumer is a rational decision maker and there are many factors that can motivate a consumer to prefer a particular brand of detergent to another.

Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out, whether television commercial of the products (Omo and Elephant blue detergents) influence the buying decision of people in Enugu metropolis or whether other factors are responsible for their buying habits of the detergents. This is to add to the information bank from which commercialist will draw information on making decisions on which medium or media to use in reaching their target audience.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to find out the effect of television commercial, if any, on the buying habits of people in Enugu metropolis with regard to blue detergents.

However, the main objective of this study is to ascertain the effectiveness of television commercials as an affecting factor on the buying habits of Enugu metropolis residents. According to Doghudje (1975:65) “not all the advertising campaigns ever accomplish their set goals, yet every manufacturer (of detergent) is into commercials”.

Thus, the study will examine the effectiveness of television commercials and to evaluate the following:

  1. To ascertain if television commercial is responsible for brand loyalty.
  2. To ascertain if commercials’ motivates members of Enugu metropolis in their choices of detergents.
  3. To find out whether there are other factors other than television that affect members of Enugu metropolis in their choice of detergents.
  4. To find out if television commercial(s) has a neutral, negative or positive effect on the choice of detergents of Enugu metropolis.
  5. To discover the impact of quality of blue detergents in the buying behaviour of Enugu metropolis
  6. To discover if member of Enugu metropolis will switch to buy another brand if the price of their brand increase.

1.4 Significant of the Study

The importance and fidelity of television commercials cannot be over-emphasized; research conducted over the years revealed the tremendous emphasis placed on commercials by manufacturers.

The study will be of great significant to manufacturers when planning their commercials so as to avoid wasting money on ineffective commercial. This will help them to know how to reach their target audience and find out their needs, thus making them to purchase the product. Thereby increasing the manufacturers’ profits.

The study will equally be of great use to people in Enugu metropolis when making their purchases, in order to get maximum satisfaction and make use of their purchasing power. It will also be of use to marketing students who may wish to take up similar studies.

The out come of this research work will contribute to the existing literatures on television commercials and its influence on brand preference and loyalty.

1.5 Research Questions

The following are the research questions for this study:

  1. a) Does Omo and Elephant blue detergents’ commercials persuade consumers to buy the product?
  2. b) Does the brand name of a particular detergent denote quality?
  3. c) Do individual characteristics of people in Enugu metropolis influence their choice of detergent?
  4. d) Do the quality and availability of a brand affect the choice of such brand?
  5. e) Is the price of detergents related to consumers’ choice of detergents?


1.6 Research Hypotheses

To effectively ascertain the effect of television commercials on buying habits of Enugu metropolis, the following hypotheses will be tested in the study:

H1:  Exposure to television commercials tends to affect the blue detergent buying habits of Enugu metropolis.

Ho: Exposure to television commercials does not affect buying habits of people in  Enugu metropolis

H2:  Exposure to television blue detergent commercials bring about attitude change to buying decision of people in Enugu metropolis.

Ho: Exposure to television commercials does not bring about attitude change of people in Enugu metropolis.

H3:  People of Enugu metropolis who are exposed to Omo and Elephant blue detergents’ television commercials tend to accept Omo blue detergent for washing more rapidly than those who are exposed to them.

Ho:  People of Enugu metropolis who are not exposed to Omo and Elephant blue detergents’ television commercials tend not to accept Omo blue detergent more rapidly than those who are exposed to them.

H4. Educated people of Enugu metropolis tend to accept television commercial on blue detergents more rapidly than those who do not have higher education.

Ho: Uneducated people of Enugu metropolis tend not to accept television commercial on blue detergents more rapidly than those who are highly educated.

H5: Brand loyalty to blue detergent tends to be habitual and is likely to be affected over the short term by commercials.

Ho: Brand loyalty to blue detergents’ is not habitual and is likely to be affected over term by commercials.

1.7  Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study focuses on the effectiveness of television commercials on the buying habits of people in Enugu metropolis and will also highlight some factors that can influence choice of blue detergents for washing.

Studying all households’ detergents users will prove very difficult and arduous. Therefore, this study will be limited to only two detergents such as Omo and Elephant blue detergents which are the two brand leaders according to recent researches.

Due to some factors (known as intervening variables), the sample size for this study is delimited 200 respondents. The areas selected for this study were selected to represent the entire Enugu town. Hence, they are the study population as proposed.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Conceptual Definitions

Concept               Definition

  1. Commercial: A presentation of goods, services or ideas, for action openly paid for by an identified sponsor.
  2. Effect: The result of an action and the impression produced.
  3. Television: The display of distant objects or events by electrical transmission.
  4. Buying Habits: The tendency of buying a particular brand of product over others.
  5. Brand: The name used to identify a specific product.
  6. Motivation: The inducement or incitement to do some thing.
  7. Brand Loyalty: This refers to the repeated patronage of a particular product.
  8. Television commercial: it is making know a product, an idea or service through the television

9: Exposure:          Allowing oneself to be affected by the television commercials.

  1. Educated people: One who can read and write


Operational Definitions

Concept               Definition

  1. Commercial: Sponsored messages on television by manufacturers of detergents aimed at persuading users and prospective users of detergents.
  2. Effect: Causing something or successful in producing a result.
  3. Television: The medium through which manufacturers of detergents each the population sample with messages.
  4. Buying Habits: The recognizable patterns of purchases of detergents made by people in Enugu metropolis.
  5. Brand: This is defined as “Omo or “Elephant”, for Omo the star symbol and Elephant the Elephant symbol are given to them for easy identification.
  6. Motivation: The ability of television commercials to move people in Enugu metropolis to choose a detergent after exposure to commercial on the product.
  7. Brand loyalty: The repeated purchase of Omo or Elephant blue detergent by the population sample.
  8. Television commercial: selling of Omo and Elephant blue detergents with motion pictures, colourful pictures, jingles and slogans on television
  9. Exposure: It means coming in contact with commercial of blue detergents on television.
  10. Educated people: Anyone who has attained at least the school certificate level of formal education.
  11. Enugu metropolis: The population sample for the study. That is, those people living in Enugu metropolis.



The following assumptions are made in this study:

1) It is assumed that the choice of detergents of people in Enugu metropolis is related to the quality and price of the detergents.

2) People living in Enugu metropolis are motivated by certain factors in their choice of detergents.

3) It is assumed that detergent compete with one another for users (consumers) attention.

4) It is assumed that television commercials bring about brand loyalty of detergents.

5) People make rational buying decisions.

6) It is assumed that television commercials bring about changes in the buying habits of people in Enugu metropolis.

7) People constantly purchase blue detergents.