Propaganda is a complex undertaking that requires historical research, examination of propaganda messages and it sensitivity to audience responses, needs critical scrutiny of the entire propaganda process.
One may be tempted to examine the short-term aspects of propaganda on an institution (University), but a true understanding of propaganda requires analysis of the long-term effects. Propaganda includes the reinforcement of cultural myths and stereotypes that are so deeply embedded in a culture that recognizing a message as propaganda is often difficult.
Propaganda is a deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.
Its systematic nature requires longitudinal study of its progress. Because the
essence of propaganda is its deliberateness of purpose. Therefore, it considerable investigation is required to find out the purpose.
The term propaganda comes from modern Latin. Originally this word derived from a new administrative body of the Catholic Church (congregation) created in 1622, called the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Congregation for Propagating the Faith), or informally simply Propaganda.[Diggs-Brown et al.,2011]; Its activity was aimed at “propagating” the Catholic faith in non-Catholic countries.[ Diggs-Brown et al.,201]
From the 1790s, the term began being used also for propaganda in secular activities.[Diggs-Brown et al.,201] The term began taking a pejorative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere.[Diggs-Brown et al.,201].
Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The Behistun Inscription ( 515 BC) detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne is viewed by most historians as an early example of propaganda.[ Nagle et al.,2009] The Arthashastra written by Chanakya (350 – 283 BC), a professor of political science at Takshashila University and a prime minister of the Maurya Empire in ancient India, discusses propaganda in detail, such as how to spread propaganda and how to apply it in warfare. His student Chandragupta Maurya (340 – 293 BC), founder of the Maurya Empire, employed these methods during his rise to power[Boesche et al.,2003]. The writings of Romans such as Livy; ( 59 BC – 17 AD) are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman propaganda.The most well-known originator of Roman historiography was Quintus Fabius Pictor (3rd century BCE). His style of writing history defending the Roman state actions and using propaganda heavily eventually became a defining characteristic of Roman historiography. Another example of early propaganda is the 12th-century work, The War of the Irish with the Foreigners, written by the Dálgcais to portray themselves as legitimate rulers of Ireland.
Propaganda during the Reformation, helped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe, and in particular within Germany, caused new ideas, thoughts, and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century. The printing press was invented in approximately 1450 and quickly spread to other major cities around Europe; by the time the Reformation was underway in 1517 there were printing centers in over 200 of the major European cities.[ Mark et al.,1942] These centers became the primary producers of both Reformation works by the Protestant Reformers and anti-Reformation works put forth by the Roman Catholics.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Institutional administration is an avenue through which the purpose and activities of an institution can be realized. Though some times, actions could be embarked on by the workers or students in an institution due to the poor running’s of the activities of the institution; the action of the administrators could led to the spread of a true or false information about the institution that is involved.
This information spread by the worker or students of an institution could have either a positive or a negative influence on the institution. Despite some of the achievement and effort in the institution (Anambra State University) there still exist rumors which could be true or false about the institution under research. In view of this, the research is focused on finding out the influence of propaganda in Anambra State University Administration
- Significance Of The Study
This study on the influence of propaganda in Anambra State University Administration is significant because the study will provide empirical basis that evaluates the reasons while propaganda exist in the institution under investigation and the impact the level of propaganda has affected the image of the school and the activities of the institution. This study will also provide various ways to improve or uphold the State of the school; it is significant also, in that whatever is being down by the administrator in the administration of an institution will have either a negative or positive impact on both the school and the students of the institution in the labour market.
The researcher, therefore, has deemed it fit to find out the reasons for such attitude in the institution and the influence such could have on the administration. Hence, this study will provide an avenue for an in-depth study on the controversial issue of knowing the influence of propaganda in Anambra State University Administration as a case study. Therefore, it will help to ascertain the reasons for such attitude and it influence on the institution.
1.4 Research Question
In order to give direction and attention to this study the following research questions were posed
- Have any form of propaganda ever existed in this institution?
- In what ways has propaganda affected the institution?
- How did the institution handle the propaganda?
- What are the views of the masses?
- How do personally feel about the propaganda?
1.5 Objective of the study
This study sought to investigate the influence of propaganda in Anambra State University Administration. In other to carry out this study effectively, the following objectives are outlined as shown below.
- To investigate if any form of propaganda ever existed in the institution.
- To ascertain ways propaganda has affected the institution.
- To ascertain how the institution handle the propaganda.
- To know the views of the masses.
- To ascertain how they personally feel about the propaganda.
1.6 Scope of the study/Delimitation
Propaganda in general, could be a fact or false; but in any form it takes it has a negative or positive influence toward it target. This study therefore, discusses the issue in light of the influence propaganda have in Anambra State University Administration.
However, on the basis of experiences coupled with the propaganda level in the institution, the present study questions the assumed dichotomy in propaganda and it influence on the University Administration
The researcher limited this study to Anambra State University Uli. This was therefore, done to find out the influence of propaganda in Anambra State University as a case study.
1.7 Conceptual Definition Of Terms
For the purpose of clarity, some key concept words used in the content of this research work are listed below and properly defined.
- Sought: seek.
- Propaganda: information that is biased or misleading.
- Administrators: those that carryout administration.
- Institution: Organization founded for a purpose.
- Reformation: The process of reforming.
- Pejorative: Expressing Contempt Or Disapproval.
- Legitimate: Conforming To A Law Or Rule.
- Scrutiny: Critical Observation or Examination.
- Critical: A serious situation.
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