THE MILITARY ERA IN NIGERIA (1966-1999) AND ITS POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACT ON SOCIETY

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON NIGERIA’S MILITARY ERA

1.1 Historical Context and Significance of the Military Era in Nigeria

The military era in Nigeria, spanning from 1966 to 1999, holds immense historical significance in the country’s political trajectory. This period was marked by a series of military coups, the suspension of democratic governance, and the predominance of military rule. Understanding the historical context and significance of this era is crucial to comprehending its political, economic, and socio-cultural impact on Nigerian society.

Nigeria, after gaining independence from British colonial rule on October 1, 1960, faced numerous challenges as it embarked on nation-building (Falola & Heaton, 2008). The early years of independence were characterized by political instability, corruption, ethnic tensions, and economic struggles (Anifowose & Enemuo, 2003). These challenges created an environment ripe for military intervention, leading to the military era.

The military era officially began on January 15, 1966, with the “January 15 coup” that overthrew the civilian government (Falola & Heaton, 2008). Led by a group of young military officers, the coup resulted in the assassination of Prime Minister Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa and other political leaders. Major General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi emerged as the military head of state (Falola & Heaton, 2008).

The January 15 coup had significant implications for Nigeria’s political landscape. It heightened ethnic tensions, particularly between the Igbo ethnic group, which was heavily involved in the coup, and other ethnic groups in the country (Ikelegbe, 2001). These tensions eventually escalated into the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970) when the southeastern region declared secession as the Republic of Biafra (Falola & Heaton, 2008).

The Nigerian Civil War was a major turning point in the military era and had profound consequences for the country. The war was primarily fought along ethnic lines, with the predominantly Igbo southeastern region seeking to secede from Nigeria (Anifowose & Enemuo, 2003). It resulted in the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives and caused extensive damage to infrastructure, economic resources, and social cohesion (Osuntokun, 1997).

Following the civil war, General Yakubu Gowon assumed power and focused on national reconciliation, reconstruction, and economic development (Falola & Heaton, 2008). The Gowon administration introduced the “Three Rs” – Reconstruction, Rehabilitation, and Reconciliation – as part of its post-war agenda. These initiatives aimed to heal the wounds of the war, rebuild the affected regions, and foster national unity.

However, discontent and economic challenges led to further military coups and counter-coups, resulting in a series of military regimes that characterized the military era (Falola & Heaton, 2008). These military governments wielded centralized authority, suspended democratic institutions, and concentrated power in the hands of military leaders (Anifowose & Enemuo, 2003).

Notable figures emerged during the military era, each leaving their imprint on Nigeria’s political landscape. General Murtala Ramat Mohammed, who assumed power in a bloodless coup in 1975, implemented significant policy changes aimed at addressing corruption, restoring discipline, and improving the welfare of the Nigerian people (Falola & Heaton, 2008). His regime initiated a purge of corrupt officials, known as the “War Against Indiscipline,” which aimed to instill a sense of accountability and responsibility in Nigerian society.

General Olusegun Obasanjo, who succeeded Mohammed, introduced the “Green Revolution” program to promote agricultural development and self-sufficiency (Falola & Heaton, 2008). The program focused on modernizing farming techniques, increasing agricultural productivity, and ensuring food security. While the initiative showed promise, its impact was limited by various challenges, including inadequate funding, lack of infrastructure, and low agricultural mechanization.

General Muhammadu Buhari’s regime, which came into power through a military coup in December 1983, prioritized the fight against corruption, fiscal discipline, and moral regeneration (Falola & Heaton, 2008). The regime launched the “War Against Indiscipline” campaign, aiming to restore order, discipline, and ethical conduct in society. However, critics argue that the campaign resulted in human rights abuses and a suppression of democratic values.

General Ibrahim Babangida’s administration, which took over through a palace coup in August 1985, implemented the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) to stabilize Nigeria’s economy, reduce dependence on oil, and promote private sector growth (Anifowose & Enemuo, 2003). The SAP involved economic liberalization, deregulation, and the privatization of state-owned enterprises. While it aimed to address economic challenges and attract foreign investment, it also led to job losses, increased poverty levels, and social inequality.

Throughout the military era, Nigeria experienced severe human rights abuses, censorship, and restrictions on civil liberties. The military regimes repressed dissent, curtailed freedom of speech and assembly, and violated basic human rights (Anifowose & Enemuo, 2003). Extrajudicial killings, torture, and arbitrary arrests were common occurrences, contributing to a climate of fear and intimidation.

It was not until May 29, 1999, that Nigeria transitioned back to democratic governance with the inauguration of President Olusegun Obasanjo, marking the end of the military era (Falola & Heaton, 2008). The return to civilian rule brought hopes of political stability, respect for human rights, and the restoration of democratic institutions.

Understanding the historical context and significance of Nigeria’s military era is crucial for comprehending its wide-ranging impact on the country. The subsequent chapters of this project will delve into the political dynamics, economic policies, and socio-cultural consequences of the military era, providing a comprehensive analysis of its impact on Nigerian society.

1.2 Research Objectives and Significance

1.2.1 Statement of the Research Objectives

The research objectives of this project are as follows:

  1. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the historical context and significance of Nigeria’s military era from 1966 to 1999.
  2. To examine the major events and transitions that occurred during the military era, including the coups, political dynamics, and policy changes.
  • To analyze the political, economic, and socio-cultural impact of the military era on Nigerian society.
  1. To assess the implications of the military era for democratic governance, human rights, and political stability in Nigeria.
  2. To contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field of political science by examining the military era as a case study of political transition and authoritarian rule.

1.2.2 Explanation of the Project’s Relevance to Political Science

This project holds significant relevance to the field of political science for several reasons. Firstly, it contributes to the understanding of political transitions and regime change. The military era in Nigeria represents a unique case study of the suspension of democratic governance and the rise of military rule. By analyzing the events and dynamics of this period, the project sheds light on the factors and mechanisms that contribute to political instability and the erosion of democratic institutions.

Secondly, the project explores the complex relationship between the military and civilian sectors in a political context. It examines how military interventions can shape the socio-political landscape and influence governance structures. This analysis provides insights into the dynamics of power, the role of the military in politics, and the challenges of democratic consolidation in post-authoritarian societies.

Moreover, the project highlights the socio-economic implications of the military era. By examining the policies and reforms implemented during this period, such as economic liberalization and structural adjustments, the project evaluates their impact on economic development, social inequality, and public welfare. This analysis contributes to the understanding of the interplay between political regimes and socio-economic transformations.