1.1 Background to the Study
Generational differences in the workplace have received substantial attention in both the lay and empirical literature over the past few years (Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007; Gursoy, Maier, & Chi, 2008; Kupperschmidt, 2000; Smola & Sutton, 2002) and research has found that there are differences in work values from different generational groups (Twenge, Campbell, Hoffman, & Lance, 2010; Westerman & Yamamura, 2007). This diversity of work values may influence the level of value congruence (i.e., compatibility between employees’ work values and values held by organizations) because certain work values held by particular workers may be more likely to align with the organization’s value, such as the value of hard work held by the older generation. Empirical research has suggested that employee possession of high levels of value congruence is important to organizations as congruent employees are likely to exhibit positive work outcomes.
One fundamental characteristic that both employees and organizations share is “values”. Values, according to Dose (2007) “are evaluative standards relating to work or the work environment by which individuals discern what is “right” or assess the importance of preferences. One can easily generate examples to show that individuals would probably be more comfortable in an environment that is consistent with their values. Similarly, an individual who values orderliness and cautiousness is likely to shrink in an environment that encourages experimentation and creativity (Dose, 1997).
Murphy (1991) and Enz (1989) found that individuals with different value systems often have trouble working together and understanding each other’s motives. Matching managerial values with shared values of the organization may also be a key element in successful human resource management (Enz, 1989). Value could litely be likened to culture but not culture because culture is a part of value. However, just like organizational culture, weak values in an organization are bound to bring about low employee commitment and in turn low productivity in such an organization. An organization’s work value could be strong or weak (Robbins, 1990; Kotter and Heskett, 1992; McOliver and Nwagwu, 2000). A work value is considered strong if the set of norms and values are widely shared and strongly held throughout the organization (O`Reilly, 1989; Gordon and DiTmosa, 1992; Kotter and Heskett, 1992; O`Reilly and Chatman, 1996). The strength of work value is determined by the degree of sharedness and intensity. The more members that accept the core value and the greater their commitment to those values the stronger the commitment. According to Schein (1984) young organisations or those with high staff turnover will have weak culture because they do not have adequate shared experience to create common meanings. To be effective an organisation`s culture, strategy, environment and technology must be properly aligned and the stronger the culture the more important it is that these variables be aligned (Robbins, 1990). Since a strong work value increases behavioural consistency, it could be a powerful means of implicit control and can be a substitute for formality (Weick, 1987; Robbins, 1990; McOliver and Nwagwu, 2000; Sorensen, 2002). Therefore, the stronger an organisation`s work value the less is the need for developing formal rules to guide the conduct of employees. A strong culture enables an organisation to achieve excellent performance (Brown, 1998). Deal and Kennedy (1983) believe that the impact of a strong work value on productivity is amazing. In the extreme, we estimate that a company can gain as much as one or two hours of productive work per employee per day.
Meyer and Allen (1987) stated that commitment is characterized as an attitude of attachment to an employing organization. Researchers focus primarily on the identification of antecedents contributing to the development of organizational commitment and the impact on job attitudes and behavior that commitment may have. Employees are those who are under employ to work in an organization for certain defined gains. The commitment of an employee revolves greatly around the benefits and securities of his job. These benefits are enshrined as part of the work values of an organization. Kuang (2004) indicated that Work Value led people to a real meaning about the job or specific work, such as reward, diligence, loyalty, interpersonal relationship, social status, and self-actualization, to form the preferable awareness or intention. This research work therefore seeks to examine the relationship between work value and employee commitment in organizations especially banks.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study is embarked upon to look into the way work values affect employee commitment to work and how this commitment can help or mar the organizations efforts at achieving its set goals which among others are to pry into the human indices responsible for poor performance standard of most banking industries with a view to reversing them, value and its compatibility with the type of industry, the degree of influence of organizational work value on the various employee backgrounds in the workplace as against productivity, the reward and punishment criteria, the differentiation from what is right or wrong in the organization, the way of relationship between staff and the organization environment etc. In view of this, since work values make employees and employers to bother about reward, diligence, loyalty, interpersonal relationship, social status, and self-actualization, the degree to which employee commitment fosters revolve around organizational work value.
The work value of certain organizations like the banks under study has regrettably not provided the satisfaction employees seek hence their poor commitment to work and poor outcome at such organizations. This research work therefore seeks to among other things identify what work values truly entail, the relationship that exists between work value and employee commitment and how these variables affect productivity in an organization.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is on the relationship between work value and employee commitment among selected deposit banks in Anambra State.
The specific objectives are;
- To identify the qualities of work value.
- To identify the relationship between work value and employee performance.
- To identify how work value can be used to boost employee commitment thus productivity.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the qualities of work value?
- What are the relationships between work value and employee performance?
- How can work value be used to boost employee commitment thus productivity?
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
- Ho: Work value has certain known qualities.
Hi: There are no known qualities of work value.
- Ho: There are relationships between work value and employee performance.
Hi: There are no relationships between work value and employee performance.
- Ho: There are ways through which work value can be used to boost employee commitment thus productivity.
Hi: There are no ways through which work value can be used to boost employee commitment thus productivity.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant to employers of labor as they are given insights into what values they are to look out for in employing those who will make up their work force.
Also, the employee’s will know how to show commitment to the values of their work place knowing that it is a parameter for assessment by the management.
Management drawing from this study will fine-tune their work place value to suit current trends in organizations so as t o elucidate the right amount of commitment needed from staff to achieve desired productivity.
For students, scholars and librarians, this study will serve as a basis for further research into work value and employee commitment even opening up more areas of interest for future research.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study was carried out to find out the relationship between work value and employee commitment. The area of study is also restricted to selected banks in Anambra State.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The researcher of this work did encounter some major problems in the course of this research.
Time was a problem as the time for the study was grossly inadequate. The researcher had to battle with keeping up with appointments and carrying on with his studies too.
The funds needed to facilitate the field work and research for this study was scarcely available due to the economic recession in the country. Also, access to materials to review was a major problem with a negative attitude encountered from the respondents who were generally lackadaisical in providing the needed response for this work due to fear of victimization from those whose ox maybe gored through the revelations of this study.
The researcher however was able to manage the little time and resources to see to the successful end of this research work.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
Work Values: Dawn (2016), They are the beliefs and ideas that are important to you and guide your actions. For example, you may believe that you should always be honest, go out of your way to help others and be independent. Your work values are simply those principles that have to do with your occupation or job.
Commitment: Kanter (1968) defines commitment as “The willingness of social actors to give their energy and loyalty to social systems, the attachment of personality systems to social relations, which are seen as self expressive”.
Employees Commitment: This is the degree of willingness and energy an employee puts into achieving set organizational goals in line with set rules and standards of such an organization.
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