1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Training is the crucial area of human resource management; it is the fastest growing segment of personnel activities. Training which is referred to as a course of diet and exercise for developing the employees’ effective, cognitive and psychomotor skills assist the organizations to have a crucial method of developing the employee towards enhancing his productivity (Ezeani & Oladele, 2013).
The history of training development was as old as the history of man on earth. It can be traced back to when people begin to achieve goals (targets) through group efforts in which those involved needs to be trained and developed for effective and efficient goal realization.
Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915) whose basic ideas led to increased productivity and efficiency recognized the importance of training in his principles of management, that the best man to do the job must be scientifically selected and trained.
As history evolved, various training techniques and methods were used in various periods depending on the dynamism of the business environment especially the technological environment. But then, there was no full time training of employees. Full scale training of civil servants began in many Western countries in the decades after World War II. The most important development was perhaps the findings in 1945 of the National School of Administration in Paris. Which serves as both professional school and recruitment agency for the French government’s administration and diplomatic services. Great Britain, India and other countries have developed their own civil servants. At the time, less-developed countries have unique problems of training, and therefore has to send their key personnel for training abroad.
Manpower training and development is one of the most important organizational dynamics. It constitutes the pivot in which organizational survival is run. The training process is one of the most pervasive methods for enhancing the productivity of individuals and communicating organizational goals to personnel (Ekaterini, 2009).
Manpower is the basis of all resources and it is the indispensable means of converting other resources to man kind’s use and benefits. So how well we develop and employ human resources skills is fundamental in deciding how much we will accomplish as a nation. Manpower is the pivot of every human institution. Even in the developed and industrial nations of the world where the use of machines and technology is at an advanced stage, manpower is still very essential (Comma, 2008). Training therefore holds the key to unlock the potential growth and development opportunities to achieve a competitive edge. In this context, organizations train and develop their employees to the fullest advantage in order to enhance their effectiveness (Devi & Shaik, 2012).
The importance of training as a central role of management has long been recognized by leading writers (Irene, 2013). Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization (Olusanya et al, 2012).
Efficiency and effectiveness are ingredients of performance apart from competitiveness and productivity and training is a way of increasing organizational performance through increase in individual employee contribution (Cooke 2000). In every organization there are some expectations from the employees with respect to their performance. And when they perform up to the set standards and meet organizational expectations they are believed to be good performers. While much is known about the economics of training in the developed world, studies of issues associated with training in less-developed countries are rarely found. According to Sheri-Iynne & Parbudyal (2007) organizational efficiency means the ability of an organization to meet goals, maintain its place in the industry amidst competition and also increase in profitability.
To manage an organization both large and small requires staffing them with competent personnel. The formal educational system does not adequately teach specific job skills for a position in a particular organization. Few employees have the requisite skills, knowledge, abilities and competencies (SKAC) needed to work. As a result, many require extensive training to acquire the necessary SKAC to be able to make substantive contribution towards the organization’s growth (Barron & Hagerty, 2001). In order to sustain economic growth and effective performance, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of the organizations.
In a developing country like Nigeria, training and development of manpower resources is highly needed in virtually all business organizations for its effectiveness (Ezeani & Oladele, 2013). Deficiencies in knowledge, skills, and ability among public personnel, particularly those of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are remarkable (Bahal, Swanson, & Earner, 1992). Training is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technically and socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions.
There is therefore a continual need for the process of staff development, and training fulfils an important part of this process. Training should be viewed therefore as an integral part of the process of total quality management.
Beardwell and Holden (1993) argue that the recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of competition and the relative success of organizations where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized.
Chandan (2007) asserts that, “In the past training and development was primarily oriented towards functional, chnical and specific job related skills, in today’s business and managerial environment, the training and development programmes stressed a broad range of group interaction, skills, cross-functional issues, quality issues and diagnostic problem solving skills.”
All the aforementioned trends in training and development techniques or methods are efforts towards making it (i.e training and development) an effective instrument for increased productivity. Unfortunately however, there are still those who feel that systematic training is costly or beyond their capabilities, while some hinders the effectiveness of training through corruption, tribalism and undue favoritism. Yet, most managers know that a person such as a secretary who is skilled in his job is more efficient than an unskilled person. It is in view of this that the importance of understanding training and development as a tool for enhancing employee productivity becomes necessary and hence the research work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In spite various government interventions and efforts; the Nigerian public sector’s score-card has remained poor performance and inefficiency. Considering the important role of training and development in bringing the Nigerian public service to an enviable height, if those that are expected to execute policies of the government and manage public affairs are not well trained and knowledgeable, there would definitely be a problem.
Training and development is the process of developing knowledge, skills and behaviours in people that will enable them to better perform their current and future jobs (Chandan, 2000). The aim of establishing any training and development programme by organisations, should therefore be with the expectation of enabling employees to better perform their current and future jobs for increased productivity.
Furthermore, the effectiveness of any training and development programme can be measured in terms of its contributions to the achievement of the overall objectives of the organisation. Such effectiveness can be approximated by a number of measures such as organizational production and the costs of operating that system.
The instrumentality (or effectiveness) of training and development is though being recognised by most organisations because of their varied training and development programmes, but there still exist some problems such that if the cost of training is put into consideration, as training employees demand a lot of input financially from the organisation. Also the duration of training is one of the problems associated with it, as training can take much time depending on what the person knows and what he is supposed to know. When mangers or employers put into consideration such factors as these, training and development becomes a secondary thing for them. Moreover, sometimes even with good training and development programmes on ground, bedevilment of this generation such as corruption, tribalism and undue favoritism do comes in. In essence, all the above mentioned problems to a great extent hinder the effectiveness and efficiency of training and development programmes and affect organisational productivity adversely.
Obviously the achievement of the objectives for which they were employed might be affected. As the popular Adage says, “If a naked man promises you clothes, ask him which one”.
Where the human capital is not planned, organizations will be confronted with the inability to deliver quality service, inability to attract and retain the people required and difficulty in the development and training of highly talented personnel. Training on the Job and some form of in-service training are examples of training being designed or intended to develop the knowledge or expertise, greater confidence and a higher degree of performance. The principal intention of training is to equip people with the knowledge required to qualify them for a particular position of employment or to improve their skills and efficient in the position they already hold.
Staff development, on the hand, implies growth and the acquisition of wide experience for future strategies advantage of the orga1nization.
Training is therefore a key element for improved organizational effectiveness; it increases the level of individual and organizational competences. It helps to reconcile the gap between what should happen and what is happening – between desired targets or standards and actual levels of work performance. Thus the study focuses on the impact of training and development on organizational effectiveness in public sector in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is on training and development as an effective tool for enhancing organizational effectiveness in Anambra State Ministry of Works and Housing, 2011-2016.
The specific objectives of this study include;
- To identify the challenges of training and development in an organization.
- To highlight the benefits of training and development towards organizational effectiveness.
- To ascertain ways through which training and development can be enhanced in an organization for efficiency purposes.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions for this study are as follows:
- What are the challenges of training and development in an organization?
- To highlight the importance of training and development towards organizational effectiveness?
- In what ways can training and development be enhanced in an organization for efficiency purposes?
For the purpose of this study, the following hypothesis will be tested.
- H0: Paucity of funds, corruption, tribalism and undue favoritism are not some of the challenges of training and development in public establishments.
H1: Paucity of funds, corruption, tribalism and undue favoritism are some of the challenges of training and development in public establishments.
- H0: Training and development is not important to organizational effectiveness.
H1: Training and development is important to organizational effectiveness.
- H0: There are no strategies through which training and development can be enhanced in organizations.
H1: There are strategies through which training and development can be enhanced in organizations.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research has both Theoretical and Practical significance.
Theoretically, this study will contribute to the scholarly debate on the importance of training development for enhancing organizational effectiveness in Anambra State Ministry of works and housing and other public establishments or agencies in Nigeria. Scholars will tap from this work in further and related studies.
Practically, the outcome of this study will also help policy makers and administrators know how to make policies on staff training and development in Nigeria. It will spur government and management of the ministry of works and housing Awka in formulating and implementing policies on personnel training and development so as to increase their competitive and efficiency level. Staff attitude and behavior towards work can be modified with some key points attained from this study thereof.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on finding out the relationship between staff training and development and organizational efficiency with emphasis only on the Ministry of Works and Housing Awka. The choice of this ministry above others is due to its proximity to the researcher and the fact that the ministry is one of those that are under public concern over their level of efficiency.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
During the course of this research, there were some visible and invisible problems encountered notably in some areas of data collecting. The problems are as follows: There was also the issue of time inadequacy as the time for the study was grossly inadequate. The researcher has to use the time allowed for lectures for research.
The choice of the right state for this research was also not an easy one as the researcher had to consider accessibility to information needed for the research.
Epileptic power supply and shortage of fund was also a problem to the researcher.
Despite all the noted problems encountered, the researcher was able to work hard in avoiding the majority of the noted problems by maximization of time, management of funds, continuous pressing for respondents compliance and tremendous sourcing of both primary and data day in day out till this work was finally concluded.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Training: This usually implies preparation for an occupation or for a specific skill or rather organized processes through which skill and knowledge are learn for a specified purpose.
Development: This suggests a broader view of knowledge and skill acquisition than training; it is concerned with employee potential than immediate skill.
Effectiveness: Signifies a level of performance that describes a process that uses the lower amount of inputs to create the greatest amount of outputs.
Training and Development Policy: This is a plan of action developed by government or organization which stipulates the methods, types, products, techniques and objectives of their training activities.
Organizational Effectiveness: This is the degree to which an organization realizes its goals within stipulated time and minimum use of resources.