The study was carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous and petroleum ether extract of momordica charantia on blood glucose level of albino rats.The extraction was done using petroleum ether and water .Thirty two albino rats were grouped into eight (A ,B,C,D,E,F,G,H). Comprising of four in each group .Diabetes was induced with a single Dose of 100mg/kg body weight of alloxan solution .After induction of alloxan ,group A and B were orally administered with 100 and 200mg/kg body weight of aqueous momordica charantia extract respectively .group C,D and E were administered with 100 ,200,300mg /kg body weight of petroleum ether extract of momordica charantia ,group F received 70mg/kg body weight of Glibenclamide ,group G received distilled water and feed and was not induced and was not induced alloxan while group H was induced with Alloxan but not treated with the extract nor synthetic drug.The glucose concentration of all the groups treated with alloxan  was significantly higher  than the untreated one. After treatment the Momordica charantia showed the antihypergylcermic effect on the blood glucose concentration compared to those with glibenaclamide.

Keywords:    Diabetes    mellitus,   Alloxan    monohydrate,   Glibenclamide,   Momordica charantia.

          LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Grouping of the animals      20

Table 2 Determination of the blood glucose level 22

Table 3 Determination of the average body weight        24

3.2.3 Collection of animal       19

3.2.4 Experimental animal model     20

3.2.5 Collection of Blood Samples   20

3.3.6 Principle      20


4.0 Results  22


5.0 Discussion and Conclusion         26

5.1 Discussion      26

5.2 Conclusion     26





The term Diabetes and Mellitus are from GREEK. Diabetes denotes Sweet It is thought that the Greeks named it so due to the excessive amount 0f urine produced by diabetic patients attracted flies and bees. The traditional way of diagnosing diabetes mellitus in ancient Chinese was by observing whether ants are attracted to a person’s urine themselves, a scene occasionally depicted in Gothic beliefs (Patlak, 2002).

Diabetes Mellitus is a combination heterogeneous disorder commonly presenting with episodes of hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, as a result of lack of insulin, defective insulin action or both (Sicree at al., 2006). Such complication arise due to derangement in the regulatory system for storage and mobilization of metabolic fuels including the catabolism and anabolism of carbohydrate, lipids and proteins emanating from defective insulin secretion, insulin action or both (Shilliote   1988;   Votey   and Peter   2004). Classification of diabetes mellitus viz; type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestation diabetes and other specific types(Sicree  et  al.,  2006).Type 1 diabetes is said to account for only minority of the total burden of diabetes in a population although it is the major type of diabetes in young age of groups at majority of well to do countries. The incidence of type 1 is increasing in both rich and poor countries. Further a shift towards type 1 diabetes occurring in children at earlier ages is imminent (Sicree  et  al.,  2006). 85%to 95% of all diabetes in high in countries are of type 2 accounting for an even higher dominance in developing countries ,It is currently common and serious health concern globally .Insulin is a polypeptide hormone synthesized in humans and other mammals within the beta cells of the islets of langerhans of the pancrease .The islets of langerhans form the endocrine part of the pancrease accounting for 20% of the total mass of the pancrease with beta cells constuting 60-80% of all the cells of islets of the langerhans  (Anon 2004). Insulin inhibits a multitude of effects in mammalian tissue with liver tissue and adipose tissue being the most important target organs for insulin action .The basic synthesis of carbohydrate ,protein ,lipids ,and nucleic acids .The effect of insulin action carbohydrate metabolism include stimulation of glucose transport across muscle  and adipocyte cell membrane ,regulation of hepatic glycogen synthesis and inhibition of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (Pero,2006) .The end result of this action is reduction in glucose concentration with regard to protein metabolism ,insulin promotes transfer of amino acid across the membrane .stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits proteolysis ,,incorporation of fatty acids from circul;ating triglyceride and lipid synthesis are synthesized are stimulated by insulin ,lipolysis is inhibited ,Insulin contributed to nucleic acid synthesis by stimulating the formation of ATP,DNA,RNA ,(Cahill,1971).

According to WHO(1994),this problem has been aggravated by rapid cultural and social dynamics ,ageing population,increasing urbanization ,dietary changes ,reduced physical activity and other unhealthy lifestyle lifestyle and behavioural patterns .

Diabetes mellitus and lesser form of glucose intolerance ,particularly impaired glucose tolerance ,can now be found in almost every population in the world and epidermological evidence suggest that without effective prevention and control programs ,diabetes would likelform of glucose intolerance ,particularly impaired glucose tolerance ,can now be found in almost every population in the world and epidermological evidence suggest that without effective prevention and control programs ,diabetes would likely continue globally (WHO 1994).

In 2010,about 285 million people in the age group 20-79 were envisaged to have diabetes world wide ,about  70% of whom ,Further ,by 2030,the number  of people with ICT is projected to increase to 472 million or 8.4% of the adult population (Sicree et al .,2006).

Then debilitating effects of diabetes mellitus include various organ failure ,progressive metabolic complication such as retinopathy ,nephropathy and neuropathy (Piero,2006).

Diabetes are accompanied by risk of cardiovascular ,peripherial vascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

Natural plants have been valuable source of mineral agent with proven potential of treating infectious disease and with lesser side effect compared to s ynthetic drugs agent (2002).its fruits has a distinguishing bitter taste which is more pronounced as it ripens ,hence the name bitter melon or bitter gourd .Momordica charantia member of cucubitabcae  family ,is known as bitter melon ,bitter gourd ,and balsam grows in tropical area of Amazon ,East African and Asian countries and is usually used traditionally as food and medicine .


Pharmacological and medicinal properties of bitter gourd have been studied by various researchers that include ,anticarcinogenic ,antioxidative ,antitumor ,immune modulating activities etc.Invitro studies reveal that the bitter gourd proteins (A and B monorcharin) have been inhibitory effect against human immune virus (HIV).Leaf extracts have demonstrated broad spectrum and antimicrobial activities against   Ecoli staphylococcus,pseudomonas,sallmonelas,streptococcus{30}.furthermore,it has been refferd to posses anagelsic and abortificient  properties.Biochemical and animal model have produced abundant data and hypothesis accounting for the antidiabetic effect of momordica charantia.

Biochemical and Animal model experiment have produced abundant data and hypothesis accounting for antidiabetic effects of momordica charantia.the work is aimed at evaluating the effect of petr0leum ether extractof momordica .on total scrum glucose in alloxan iinduced albino wistar rats


To investigate the antihyperglycermic propertie of Momordia charantia.